Crash Notes: Freaky Friday News

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$$$$: Happy Birthday to You!

There’s hardly a more “generic” song in America than “Happy Birthday to You,” but to this day (until a judge renders a decision in a pending case), Warner/Chappel Music is still trying to make big dollars off of the 16-word ditty (15 original words plus a user-supplied 16th). Its original copyright should have expired, at the latest, in 1921, but amendments to the law and technicalities in interpretation (e.g., did the copyright cover all public uses or just piano arrangements?) bring Warner at least $2 million a year in fees. A federal judge in California is expected to rule soon on whether the song is in fact uncopyrightably “generic” — 125 years after the Hill sisters (Mildred and Patty) composed it. [CBS News, 3-27-2015]

Ironies

“The ancient art of yoga is supposed to offer a path to inner peace,” wrote the Wall Street Journal in February — before launching into a report on how many yoga classes these days are so crowded that inner peace-seekers are more likely than ever either to seethe throughout their session — or to openly confront floor-hoggers. Explained one coach, “People who are practicing yoga want Zen; they don’t already have it.” [Wall Street Journal, 2-16-2015]

Timely Information: (1) Joseph Forren, 21, with a .172 blood alcohol level, plowed into a pickup truck in April in Trumbull, Connecticut (though with no serious injuries). Police said Forren’s cellphone on the seat still displayed a current text message, “Don’t drink and drive … Dad.” (2) According to police records released in April, Mila Dago (now 24 and awaiting trial for DUI manslaughter) was trading sarcastic texts with her ex-boyfriend that night in August 2013 while barhopping (later, registering .178 blood alcohol), and as she ran a red light, smashed into a pickup truck, injuring herself badly and her friend in the passenger seat fatally. According to the police report, her last text to the ex- boyfriend (three minutes earlier) was “Driving drunk woo … I’ll be dead thanks to you.” [Connecticut Post (Bridgeport), 4-27-2015] [Miami Herald, 4-30-2015]

Additional Ironies: (1) The Indian Journal of Dermatology announced in April that it was withdrawing a recent scientific paper by a dentist in Kerala state, “Development of a Guideline to Approach Plagiarism in Indian Scenarios,” because parts of the article had been plagiarized from a student dissertation. (2) Low voter turnout in non-presidential election years is increasingly problematic in easily distracted Los Angeles, but the issue was specifically addressed by campaigners in the March 3 city council elections — which, of course, only about 9 percent of registered voters cast ballots in. [NPR, 4-2-2015] [LA Weekly, 3-4-2015]

Suspicions Confirmed

In New York City, someone can be fired for being “too nice.” Doorman Ralph Body, 41, was dismissed from his job at an upscale New York City apartment building because he did too many favors for tenants, according to an April New York Post report. Body said he “gave his life” to the residents at the “27 on 27th” tower in Queens, but “upper management” thought such extra kindnesses violated building policy and ordered his dismissal despite a tenant petition. [New York Post, 4-5-2015]

When the chief auditor for Hartford, Connecticut, finally got around to checking the finances of the police shooting range recently, he found that the range supervisor had bought 485,000 bullets per year, but was using only 180,000 — and had no paperwork on where the other bullets went. (In one instance, the supervisor acknowledged having bought 94,500 rounds of .45-caliber ammo two years after the department had stopped using .45s and switched to .40-caliber weapons — but his story was that he needed .45-caliber bullets so he could trade them for .40s.) [Hartford Courant, 5-2-2015]

New World Order

Millions of sports fans “draft” their own fantasy sports teams — and even the bass-fishing tournament circuit has its fantasy league, where fans select anglers good at exploiting choice spots on the lakes. In March, Alaska Dispatch News reported that, for the fourth straight year, there would be an Iditarod Fantasy League, with a “salary cap” of “$27,000” to pick seven mushers with the best chances to push their dogs to victory, with all-stars going for around $6,000 and promising rookies selling for much less. [Alaska Dispatch News, 3-6-2015]

Compelling Explanations

Alfred Guercio, 54, was arrested in Burnsville, Minnesota, in March after forcibly entering a neighbor’s home and swiping a knife set that he had given the woman as a Christmas gift. He told the woman, and police, that he was taking the gift back, as he was upset that the woman was failing to appreciate it enough. [The Smoking Gun, 3-17-2015]

Fine Points of the Law

John Deere became the most recent company in America to claim that, though a buyer may have paid in full for a device, he may not actually “own” it. Deere claims that because its tractors run on sophisticated computer programs, the ostensible owner of the tractor cannot “tamper” with that software without Deere’s permission — even to repair a defect or to customize its operation. Already, traditional movie videos may come with restrictions on copying, but the Deere case, according to an April report on Wired.com, might extend the principle to machinery not traditionally subject to copyright law. [Wired.com, 4-21-2015]

Cultural Diversity

The March arranged-marriage ceremony in Kanpur, India, was about to start when cousins of the bride (whose name is Lovely, daughter of Mohar Singh) commandeered center stage and demanded that groom Ram Baran answer the question, “What is 15 plus 6?” Baran answered, “17,” and in short order, Lovely and her family began to drift out of the room, and the marriage was off. Eventually, according to a Times of India report, the families settled the fiasco amicably, with all gifts returned. [Times of India, 3-13-2015]

Enjoy the long weekend if you’re observing the Memorial Day Weekend.  Remember the Fallen. Otherwise have a good, safe weekend!

Crash

#WarriorWednesday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth

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A weekly feature chronicling the sacrifices and achievements of the brave men & women of the US Armed Forces.

1969, Apollo 10 is launched. The mission is a dress rehearsal for the first lunar landing. Cmdr. John W. Young is the command module pilot and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, the lunar module pilot. HS-4 helicopters from USS Princeton (LPH 5) recover the Apollo crew upon splashdown.

Apollo 10 crew. Col. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (commanded the mission); Cmdr. John W. Young, USN, and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, USN, Apollo 10’s Mission Report. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, Aviation, Space.

Apollo 10 crew. Col. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (commanded the mission); Cmdr. John W. Young, USN, and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, USN, Apollo 10’s Mission Report. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, Aviation, Space.

Navy helicopter arrives to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module "Charlie Brown" floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft. NASA Photograph Collection

Navy helicopter arrives to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module “Charlie Brown” floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft. NASA Photograph Collection

Starboard broadside view of USS Princeton (LPH 5) at sea during the operation to recover the Apollo 10 spacecraft in May, 1969. Visible on the flight deck are SH-34 Seabat and SH-3 Sea King helicopters. The rounded structure on the forward part of the flight deck is for use in housing the space capsule. US Navy and Marine Corps Museum/Naval Aviation Museum.

Starboard broadside view of USS Princeton (LPH 5) at sea during the operation to recover the Apollo 10 spacecraft in May, 1969. Visible on the flight deck are SH-34 Seabat and SH-3 Sea King helicopters. The rounded structure on the forward part of the flight deck is for use in housing the space capsule.
US Navy and Marine Corps Museum/Naval Aviation Museum.

Emblem of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. NASA Photograph Collection.

Emblem of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. NASA Photograph Collection.

1973, Capt. Robin Lindsay Catherine Quigley becomes the first woman to hold a major Navy command when she assumes command of U.S. Navy Service School, San Diego, Calif. She previously served as the director of the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) from 1970 to 1972.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, pictured in 1971. She would later be the first woman to hold a major Navy Command as Commanding Officer of Navy Service School, San Diego, CA on 17 May 1973. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, pictured in 1971. She would later be the first woman to hold a major Navy Command as Commanding Officer of Navy Service School, San Diego, CA on 17 May 1973. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, answers questions for a Kansas City reporter during an interview concerning a new profile of women’s service in the Navy. She was one of over 700 Navy women attending the 30th Anniversary National Convention of Navy women held in Kansas City. Captain Quigley stated, “there are exciting, challenging and promising things going on in the People Business in the Navy these days and women are a part of it.” She added, “we are moving off in new and uncharted directions and breaking with old and comfortable ways of doing things.” When asked if women were part of the Navy, felt that women were definitely part of the “now Navy.” NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, answers questions for a Kansas City reporter during an interview concerning a new profile of women’s service in the Navy. She was one of over 700 Navy women attending the 30th Anniversary National Convention of Navy women held in Kansas City. Captain Quigley stated, “there are exciting, challenging and promising things going on in the People Business in the Navy these days and women are a part of it.” She added, “we are moving off in new and uncharted directions and breaking with old and comfortable ways of doing things.” When asked if women were part of the Navy, felt that women were definitely part of the “now Navy.” NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Lt. j.g. Robin L.C. Quigley, USN, shown while visiting the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington D.C., photographed circa 1959. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Lt. j.g. Robin L.C. Quigley, USN, shown while visiting the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington D.C., photographed circa 1959. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

1953, the publishing of the official history of the Women’s Army Corps in WWII, “United States Army in World War II Special Studies: The Women’s Army Corps” by Mattie Treadwell. Originally published by the US Army Center of Military History,  it is still one of the best sources on the subject of WACs through WWII and is a daily resource for the staff of the Army Women’s Museum.

World War II photo of Mattie Treadwell.

World War II photo of Mattie Treadwell.

Mattie E. Treadwell, a native of Texas, held a B.A. and an M.A. degree from the University of Texas. During World War II she was an officer, first in the WAAC and later in the WAC, holding such assignments as assistant to the Director WAC, assistant to the Air WAC Officer, and assistant to the Commandant, School of WAC Personnel Administration. She had the additional distinction of having been a member of the first class of women sent to the Command and General Staff School. While on active duty she attained the rank of lieutenant colonel.

From September 1947 to March 1952 Miss Treadwell was a historian in the Office of the Chief of Military History. Upon her departure she became Assistant Director, Dallas Regional Office, Federal Civil Defense Administration, in charge of women’s activities and volunteer manpower, an office that she currently holds. Her last military status was that of a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve.

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Above photo: ‪‎US Army‬ Paratroopers, from 4th Brigade Combat Team (Airborne), 25th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Alaska, and currently assigned to KFOR Multinational Battle Group-East, conduct airborne operations near Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo, May 19, 2015.

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Above photo: U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers, assigned to the 411th Engineer Brigade, 412th Theater Engineer Command, return from a situational training exercise where they constructed an improvised ribbon bridge across the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wis., May 14, 2015, part of Warrior Exercise 15-02. ‪‎US Army‬ photo by Staff Sgt. Debralee Best.

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Above photo: US Army‬ Soldiers, assigned to 3rd Infantry Division, conduct security operations during an urban warfare training exercise, part of Exercise Noble Partner in Vaziani, Georgia (Eastern Europe) May 17, 2015. ‪ ‎Noble Partner‬ is a bilateral effort focused on enhancing U.S. and Georgian NATO Response Force interoperability. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Daniel Cole.

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Above photo: A US Army‬ Soldier, assigned to 173rd Airborne Brigade and Slovenian 1st Brigade soldiers conduct sling load operations, attaching a trailer to a Slovenian Cougar helicopter, during Exercise Neptune Thrust‬ at Pocek Range in Postonja, Slovenia, May 15, 2015. Neptune Thrust is a combined exercise between U.S. and Slovenian soldiers, focused on enhancing interoperability and developing individual technical skills. U.S. Army photo by Visual Information Specialist Paolo Bovo.

Sacramento Marine recruiter honored for work in Iraq

Marine Corps Maj Daniel Grainger, commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, will be honored Thursday, May 14, 2015 for his leadership of a rifle company that ended up protecting the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, last year. (U.S Marine Corps)

Marine Corps Maj Daniel Grainger, commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, will be honored Thursday, May 14, 2015 for his leadership of a rifle company that ended up protecting the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, last year. (U.S Marine Corps)

A Sacramento, Calif.-based Marine Corps infantry officer and recruiter who began his military career as an enlisted man will receive a coveted award for leadership Thursday night.

Maj Daniel Grainger, currently the commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, earned the Lt Col William Leftwich Jr. Trophy for Outstanding Leadership for his actions last year in an increasingly chaotic Iraq.

Read the full story at the Miami Herald

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Above: Marines watch each other’s backs. Here, a combat engineer checks for IEDs while leading a patrol during a training exercise at Udairi Range, Kuwait.

WarriorWednesday

Crash

#ArtWednesday: Leonardo da Vinci, Part 2 of 4

"All knowledge has it origin in our perceptions."  - Leonardo da Vinci

“All knowledge has it origin in our perceptions.”
– Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci’s talents and gifts were so massive, so encompassing and his contribution to the world so great, Art Wednesday will spend the next 4 Wednesdays to do his works and him justice.

Although Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, many of which remained unfinished, he was nevertheless an extraordinarily innovative and influential artist. During his early years, his style closely paralleled that of Verrocchio, but he gradually moved away from his teacher’s stiff, tight, and somewhat rigid treatment of figures to develop a more evocative and atmospheric handling of composition. The early The Adoration of the Magi introduced a new approach to composition, in which the main figures are grouped in the foreground, while the background consists of distant views of imaginary ruins and battle scenes.

Leonardo’s stylistic innovations are even more apparent in The Last Supper, in which he re-created a traditional theme in an entirely new way. Instead of showing the 12 apostles as individual figures, he grouped them in dynamic compositional units of three, framing the figure of Christ, who is isolated in the center of the picture. Seated before a pale distant landscape seen through a rectangular opening in the wall, Christ-who is about to announce that one of those present will betray him-represents a calm nucleus while the others respond with animated gestures. In the monumentality of the scene and the weightiness of the figures, Leonardo reintroduced a style pioneered more than a generation earlier by Masaccio, the father of Florentine painting.

The Mona Lisa, Leonardo’s most famous work, is as well known for its mastery of technical innovations as for the mysteriousness of its legendary smiling subject. This work is a consummate example of two techniques-sfumato and chiaroscuro-of which Leonardo was one of the first great masters. Sfumato is characterized by subtle, almost infinitesimal transitions between color areas, creating a delicately atmospheric haze or smoky effect; it is especially evident in the delicate gauzy robes worn by the sitter and in her enigmatic smile. Chiaroscuro is the technique of modeling and defining forms through contrasts of light and shadow; the sensitive hands of the sitter are portrayed with a luminous modulation of light and shade, while color contrast is used only sparingly.

An especially notable characteristic of Leonardo’s paintings is his landscape backgrounds, into which he was among the first to introduce atmospheric perspective. The chief masters of the High Renaissance in Florence, including Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, and Fra Bartolommeo, all learned from Leonardo; he completely transformed the school of Milan; and at Parma, Correggio’s artistic development was given direction by Leonardo’s work.

Anatomical studies

Leonardo had continually studied the structure of the body in order to be able to depict the human figure properly. In 1510 in Pavia, Leonardo and Marcantonio della Torre, a professional anatomist at the University of Pavia, started dissecting corpses. This collaboration raised Leonardo’s research to a higher scientific level that showed itself in the quality of his drawings. In these studies it is no longer merely a question of discovering what physically exists; instead, the interplay of bones, muscles and tendons comes to fore.

After Marcantonio della Torre died of the plague in 1511, Leonardo’s practical opportunities for pursuing an intensive examination of corpses probably diminished, but the structure of the human body continued to interest him in his drawings.

The study of embryos is one of Leonardo’s most impressive anatomical drawings. However, it is certain that Leonardo did not dissect a pregnant corps; instead he applied his examinations of animal embryos to humans.

Vitruvian Man 1492 Pen, ink, watercolour and metalpoint on paper, 343 x 245 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice

Vitruvian Man
1492
Pen, ink, watercolour and metalpoint on paper, 343 x 245 mm
Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice

This celebrated drawing, probably the most famous by Leonardo, of a man with an athletic physique inscribed within a circle and a square illustrates the measurements of the ideal human body according to the rules of the Roman architect Vitruvius’s De Architectura (first century B.C.).

Studies of human skull 1489 Pen, ink and black chalk on paper, 188 x 134 mm Royal Library, Windsor

Studies of human skull
1489
Pen, ink and black chalk on paper, 188 x 134 mm
Royal Library, Windsor

Leonardo left hundreds of notebooks filled with drawings in which he explored ideas, compositions, or inventions. His curiosity led him to sketch and puzzle out diverse subjects, such as running water, growing plants, and human anatomy.

Studies of legs of man and the leg of a horse 1506-07 Pen, ink, red chalk on red prepared paper, 285 x 205 mm Royal Library, Windsor

Studies of legs of man and the leg of a horse
1506-07
Pen, ink, red chalk on red prepared paper, 285 x 205 mm
Royal Library, Windsor

Studies of embryos 1509-14 Black and red chalk, pen and ink wash on paper, 305 x 220 mm Royal Library, Windsor

Studies of embryos
1509-14
Black and red chalk, pen and ink wash on paper, 305 x 220 mm
Royal Library, Windsor

The sheet includes studies from a number of years. The note “book on water to Mr. Marcho Ant” refers to the anatomical expert Marcantonio della Torre, who died in Pisa in 1511 and with whom Leonardo carried out dissections of human bodies. This drawing of the fetus was the result of knowledge rather than direct observation of nature. Leonardo had examined the fetus of a cow and allowed his observations of the placenta to influence this drawing.

Next week, Art Wednesday featuring Part 3 of Leonardo da Vinci.

On the Web:

Leonardo da Vinci – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com

Leonardo da Vinci – Biography.com

Leonardo da Vinci and the Virgin of the Rocks, A different point of view

Da Vinci Decoded Article from The Guardian

Works by or about Leonardo da Vinci

References for the Art Wednesday 4-part series:

My personal notes and papers when I was working at the Louvre, Paris completing my Master of Arts and my international art master’s degree.

Frank Zollner (2003). Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings. Taschen.

Martin Kemp (2004). Leonardo. Oxford University Press.

Theophilus (1963). On Divers Arts. U.S.: University of Chicago Press.

Angela Ottino della Chiesa (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin Classics of World Art series.

Fritjof Capra (2007). The Science of Leonardo. U.S.: Doubleday.

Müntz, Eugène (1898). Leonardo da Vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 1. London: William Heinemann.

Müntz, Eugène (1898). Leonardo da Vinci. Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science. Volume 2. London: William Heinemann.

Leonardo da Vinci: anatomical drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1983.

Fred Bérence (1965). Léonard de Vinci, L’homme et son oeuvre. Somogy. Dépot légal 4° trimestre 1965.

Crash

#MilitaryMonday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth

Military thank you

A weekly feature honoring the military and the sacrifices they make for freedom, covered in historical images.

1930, the streamlined submarine (V 5) was commissioned. In February 1931, she was named Narwhal, and received the hull number (SS 167) that July. During WWII, Narwhal received 15 battle stars for her war patrols in the Pacific.

Navy Poster, showing USS Narwhal (SS 167). Artwork by Matt Murphy, 8 January 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77240.

Navy Poster, showing USS Narwhal (SS 167). Artwork by Matt Murphy, 8 January 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77240.

USS Narwhal (SS 167), artwork by Gordon Grant, 1943. Lithograph by Northern Pump Company, 1943. Courtesy of Captain R.M. Barnes, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95377-KN (Color)

USS Narwhal (SS 167), artwork by Gordon Grant, 1943. Lithograph by Northern Pump Company, 1943. Courtesy of Captain R.M. Barnes, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95377-KN (Color)

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Above: Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. Aerial view of the Submarine Base, with part of the supply depot beyond and the fuel farm at right, looking north on 13 October 1941. Note the fuel tank across the road from the submarine base, painted to resemble a building. The building beside the submarine ascent tower (in left center, shaped like an upside down “U”) housed the U.S. Fleet Headquarters at the time of the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941.

Office of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, the Fleet’s Commander in Chief, was in the upper left corner of the building’s top floor. USS Wharton (AP-7) is in right foreground. Among the submarines at the base are Tuna (SS-203), Gudgeon (SS-211), Argonaut (SS-166), Narwhal (SS-167), Triton (SS-201) and Dolphin (SS-169). USS Holland (AS-3) and USS Niagara (PG-52) are alongside the wharf on the base’s north side. In the distance (nearest group in upper left) are the battleship Nevada (BB-36), at far left, USS Castor (AKS-1) and the derelict old minelayer Baltimore. Cruisers in top center are USS Minneapolis (CA-36), closest to camera, and USS Pensacola (CA-24), wearing a Measure 5 painted “bow wave”. National Archives photograph: 80-G-451125.

USS Narwhal (SS 167) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, 3 April 1943.  Both the Narwhal and her sister Nautiliss were used heavily for the Marine Raiders. Their two 6 inch deck guns could give quite effective fire support. National Archives photograph, 190-N-42917.

USS Narwhal (SS 167) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, 3 April 1943. Both the Narwhal and her sister Nautiliss were used heavily for the Marine Raiders. Their two 6 inch deck guns could give quite effective fire support. National Archives photograph, 190-N-42917.

1900, USS Kentucky (BB 6) is commissioned. In 1907, she joined the Great White Fleet, returning in 1909.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photographed in July 1900, a few months after she was commissioned. Courtesy of the Filson Club, Louisville, KY. Gift of Mrs. Alexander M. Watson. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photographed in July 1900, a few months after she was commissioned. Courtesy of the Filson Club, Louisville, KY. Gift of Mrs. Alexander M. Watson. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky ship's officers, crew and Marines, circa 1914. Most of the Marines are wearing khaki field uniforms. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky ship’s officers, crew and Marines, circa 1914. Most of the Marines are wearing khaki field uniforms. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photograph taken circa 1912-1916, after modernization with basket masts. It has been color-tinted and published on a post card. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photograph taken circa 1912-1916, after modernization with basket masts. It has been color-tinted and published on a post card. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

1919, the Marine detachment from USS Arizona (BB 39) guards the U.S. consulate at Constantinople, Turkey, during the Greek occupation of the city.

In June 1915, the crowd witnesses Miss Esther Ross, sponsor of the battleship Arizona, arrive. Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

In June 1915, the crowd witnesses Miss Esther Ross, sponsor of the battleship Arizona, arrive.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

USS Arizona's ship's complement posing on her forecastle, forward turrets and superstructure, circa 1924. The officer seated in the second row, 4th from right, is Ensign Arleigh A. Burke. USNHC # NH 86101, courtesy of Naval Historical Center, from the Collection of Admiral Arleigh A. Burke.

USS Arizona’s ship’s complement posing on her forecastle, forward turrets and superstructure, circa 1924. The officer seated in the second row, 4th from right, is Ensign Arleigh A. Burke. USNHC # NH 86101, courtesy of Naval Historical Center, from the Collection of Admiral Arleigh A. Burke.

A French built Nieuport aircraft is pictured on a wooden deck constructed atop a turret. Note the Arizona's (BB 39) bell behind the plane.  Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

A French built Nieuport aircraft is pictured on a wooden deck constructed atop a turret.
Note the Arizona’s (BB 39) bell behind the plane.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

Arizona (BB 39) anchored, possibly on the Hudson after returning from Europe. Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

Arizona (BB 39) anchored, possibly on the Hudson after returning from Europe.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

1801, Tripoli declares war on the United States for not increasing the annual tribute paid as protection money to prevent raids on its ships. Within less than a week, a squadron, under Commodore Richard Dale, sets sail to protect American interests and arrives July 1 at Gibraltar.

USS President, 1800-1815, artwork by Boucher done in 1819 and captioned, “United States Frigate ‘President’, flagship of the American Squadron, Captain Stephen Decatur, 1819.” NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 592.

USS President, 1800-1815, artwork by Boucher done in 1819 and captioned, “United States Frigate ‘President’, flagship of the American Squadron, Captain Stephen Decatur, 1819.” NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 592.

“The Assault on Derna, Tripoli, 27 April 1805.” Artwork by Charles Waterhouse. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division. After a bombardment of Tripoli, a landing party with Lieutenant O'Bannon of the Marines in command hauled down the Tripolitan flag and hoisted Old Glory for the first time over a fort in the old world. April 27, 1805. Copy of artwork by Capolino., 1927 – 1981

“The Assault on Derna, Tripoli, 27 April 1805.” Artwork by Charles Waterhouse. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division.
After a bombardment of Tripoli, a landing party with Lieutenant O’Bannon of the Marines in command hauled down the Tripolitan flag and hoisted Old Glory for the first time over a fort in the old world. April 27, 1805. Copy of artwork by Capolino., 1927 – 1981

"Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat", during the bombardment of Tripoli, 3 August 1804. Oil by Dennis Malone Carter, 43" x 59", depicting Lieutenant Stephen Decatur (lower right center) in mortal combat with the Tripolitan Captain. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Washington, DC. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 44647-KN (Color).

“Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat”, during the bombardment of Tripoli, 3 August 1804. Oil by Dennis Malone Carter, 43″ x 59″, depicting Lieutenant Stephen Decatur (lower right center) in mortal combat with the Tripolitan Captain. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Washington, DC. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 44647-KN (Color).

1964, the first all-nuclear-powered task group, USS Enterprise (CVAN 65), USS Long Beach (CGN 9) and USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25), is organized and deploys to the Sixth Fleet. The task group departs in July and circumnavigates the globe without refueling.

Task Force One (All-Nuclear Task Force) operating in the Mediterranean Sea, 18 June 1964. Enterprise crewmembers are spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy on the flight deck. National Archives Photograph, KN 9027 (Color).

Task Force One (All-Nuclear Task Force) operating in the Mediterranean Sea, 18 June 1964. Enterprise crewmembers are spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy on the flight deck. National Archives Photograph, KN 9027 (Color).

Task Force One: USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25); USS Long Beach (CGN 9); and USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) in Operation Sea Orbit, which was the first circumnavigation of the glob by a nuclear-powered naval power, 31 August – 3 October 1964. Artwork by Captain Gerard Richardson, USNR. National Archives photograph: KN 9983 (Color).

Task Force One: USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25); USS Long Beach (CGN 9); and USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) in Operation Sea Orbit, which was the first circumnavigation of the glob by a nuclear-powered naval power, 31 August – 3 October 1964. Artwork by Captain Gerard Richardson, USNR. National Archives photograph: KN 9983 (Color).

USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25). Underway during her sea trials, 2-3 September 1962. Photographed by Areostatico. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98103.

USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25). Underway during her sea trials, 2-3 September 1962. Photographed by Areostatico. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98103.

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Above: USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) underway in formation with USS Long Beach (CGN 9), center, and USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25), at top, probably in the Mediterranean Sea in June-July 1964. Members of Enterprise’s crew are in a flight deck formation spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy. Planes on her flight deck include 9 A-5, 22 A-4; 10 F-4; 14 F-8 and 2 E-1 types. Those aft are parked in an arrowhead arrangement. The photograph was released for publication on 30 July 1964, upon the commencement of Operation Sea Orbit, the circumnavigation of the World by Task Force One, made up of the Navy’s first three nuclear-powered surface ships. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval Historical Center.

Crash

Little Known History: The Boy Who Didn’t Want To Be Photographed With Hitler

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1936: Gerhard Bartels, age 4, with Hitler.

Gerhard Bartels speaks about being photographed with Hitler, and being used for Nazi propaganda.

With his blue eyes, fair hair and Aryan features Gerhard Bartels was the perfect Nazi poster child. And, because his uncle was a friend of Adolf Hitler, being pictured with the dictator became an annual event for the youngster.

In the years before the outbreak of the Second World War his face appeared on postcards, books and campaigns for the regime.

Eight decades later, Mr Bartels, 83, has spoken for the first time about being used by the Nazi propaganda machine.

He said that in 1936, aged four, his parents told him to put on his best clothes because he was ‘going to meet the Fuhrer’.

‘I was not allowed to play with the other children that day in case I might get my clothes dirty,’ Mr Bartels recalled.

Gerhard Bartels, now 80, with the first of several photos with the German dictator.

Gerhard Bartels, now 80, with the first of several photos with the German dictator.

‘I didn’t like that, I just wanted to be out with the other children.’ Heinrich Hoffmann, Hitler’s personal photographer, captured the images that were used to promote Nazi campaigns for the adoption of Aryan children.

Hitler was a regular visitor to Weiss’s Bavarian hotel, which was next to the Alpenhof guesthouse owned by Mr Bartels’ parents.

Mr Bartels, who still works in the Alpine hotel, said: ‘Hitler was just a gangster. The Nazis used me for propaganda purposes. I was used to show Hitler loved children.

‘But every dictator did the same, from Mussolini to Stalin. I was also chosen because I obviously fitted what Hitler thought a good Aryan child should look like.’

Mr Bartels said that he defied instructions to greet Hitler with the customary words ‘Heil Mein Fuhrer’. He added: ‘Even at such a young age, deep down I knew I was being manipulated.’

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Sunday Reader: Scientists Discover World’s Only Known Warm-Blooded Fish

Meet the Opah - or Moonfish - the first and only known case of a fully warm-blooded fish.

Meet the Opah – or Moonfish – the first and only known case of a fully warm-blooded fish. Photo: NOAA

Heated blood makes Opah a high performance predator that swims faster, sees better.

New research by NOAA Fisheries has revealed the opah, or moonfish, as the first fully warm-blooded fish that circulates heated blood throughout its body much like mammals and birds, giving it a competitive advantage in the cold ocean depths.

The silvery fish, roughly the size of a large automobile tire, is known from oceans around the world and dwells hundreds of feet beneath the surface in chilly, dimly lit waters. It swims by rapidly flapping its large, red pectoral fins like wings through the water.

Fish that typically inhabit such cold depths tend to be slow and sluggish, conserving energy by ambushing prey instead of chasing it. But the opah’s constant flapping of its fins heats its body, speeding its metabolism, movement and reaction times, scientists report today in the journal Science.

That warm-blooded advantage turns the opah into a high-performance predator that swims faster, reacts more quickly and sees more sharply, said fisheries biologist Nicholas Wegner of NOAA Fisheries’ Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, Calif., lead author of the new paper.

“Before this discovery I was under the impression this was a slow-moving fish, like most other fish in cold environments,” Wegner said. “But because it can warm its body, it turns out to be a very active predator that chases down agile prey like squid and can migrate long distances.”

This car-tire-size opah, known as the moonfish, is the first warm-blooded fish that has ever been discovered.

This car-tire-size opah, known as the moonfish, is the first warm-blooded fish that has ever been discovered. Photo: NatGeo

Gills show unusual design

Wegner realized the opah was unusual when a coauthor of the study, biologist Owyn Snodgrass, collected a sample of its gill tissue. Wegner recognized an unusual design: Blood vessels that carry warm blood into the fish’s gills wind around those carrying cold blood back to the body core after absorbing oxygen from water.

The design is known in engineering as “counter-current heat exchange.” In opah it means that warm blood leaving the body core helps heat up cold blood returning from the respiratory surface of the gills where it absorbs oxygen. Resembling a car radiator, it’s a natural adaptation that conserves heat. The unique location of the heat exchange within the gills allows nearly the fish’s entire body to maintain an elevated temperature, known as endothermy, even in the chilly depths.

“There has never been anything like this seen in a fish’s gills before,” Wegner said. “This is a cool innovation by these animals that gives them a competitive edge. The concept of counter-current heat exchange was invented in fish long before we thought of it.”

The researchers collected temperature data from opah caught during surveys off the West Coast, finding that their body temperatures were regularly warmer than the surrounding water. They also attached temperature monitors to opah as they tracked the fish on dives to several hundred feet and found that their body temperatures remained steady even as the water temperature dropped sharply. The fish had an average muscle temperature about 5 degrees C above the surrounding water while swimming about 150 to 1,000 feet below the surface, the researchers found.

While mammals and birds typically maintain much warmer body temperatures, the opah is the first fish found to keep its whole body warmer than the environment.

A few other fish such as tuna and some sharks warm certain parts of their bodies such as muscles, boosting their swimming performance. But internal organs including their hearts cool off quickly and begin to slow down when they dive into cold depths, forcing them to return to shallower depths to warm up.

Warmth provides competitive edge

Satellite tracking showed opah spend most of their time at depths of 150 to 1,300 feet, without regularly surfacing. Their higher body temperature should increase their muscle output and capacity, boost their eye and brain function and help them resist the effects of cold on the heart and other organs, Wegner said.

Fatty tissue surrounds the gills, heart and muscle tissue where the opah generates much of its internal heat, insulating them from the frigid water.

Other fish have developed limited warm-bloodedness (known as regional endothermy) to help expand their reach from shallower waters into the colder depths. But the opah’s evolutionary lineage suggests that it evolved its warming mechanisms in the cold depths, where the fish can remain with a consistent edge over other competitors and prey. Recent research has found distinctive differences among opah from different parts of the world, and Wegner said scientists are now interested in comparing warm-blooded features among them.

“Nature has a way of surprising us with clever strategies where you least expect them,” Wegner said. “It’s hard to stay warm when you’re surrounded by cold water but the opah has figured it out.”

NOAA research surveys off California have caught more opah in recent years, but biologists are not sure why. Current conditions may be favoring the fish, or their population may be growing. Opah are not usually targeted by fishermen off California but local recreational anglers and commercial fisheries occasionally catch the species. The opah’s rich meat has become increasingly popular in seafood markets.

“Discoveries like this help us understand the role species play in the marine ecosystem, and why we find them where we do,” said Francisco Werner, director of the Southwest Fisheries Science Center. “It really demonstrates how much we learn from basic research out on the water, thanks to curious scientists asking good questions about why this fish appeared to be different.”

On the Web: 

SWFSC’s Opah Research portfolio 

SWFSC’s Opah Research in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

Flickr album — opah

View more images in the Opah Image Gallery

NOAAFishWatch page on opah

San Diego Union Tribune article on opah

Interview with National Geographic on SWFSC opah research

GreenSeas-BlueSeas: Illustrated Guide to the California Current

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Sacred Sunday: 14th Century Cathedral Architecture

Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Interior begun c. 1330 Photo Campo dei Frari, Venice

Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Interior
begun c. 1330
Photo
Campo dei Frari, Venice

The great Franciscan church of the Frari was begun in about 1330, replacing the earlier church which stood on the site of the nave of the present one. Its construction took more than a century. The tall campanile, second only to that of San Marco, was completed in 1396. The presbytery, choir, and transepts must have been erected by the 1410s, and the nave was built last after the demolition of the previous church.

The high altar was dedicated in 1469, just after the installation of the ornate wooden choir stalls with their Gothic canopies embellished with perspective intarsia scenery the time that the stone pulpitum was completed by Pietro Lombardo in 1475, the Gothic style had already been superseded by an elegant early Renaissance classicism. Titian’s famous Assumption, executed in 1516-18 for the high altar, provides the final unifying element in this dramatic artistic ensemble. The completed church was consecrated in 1492.

Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Choir of the friars begun c. 1330 Photo Campo dei Frari, Venice

Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Choir of the friars
begun c. 1330
Photo
Campo dei Frari, Venice

The picture shows a view of the choir toward the entrance wall.

Palazzo Ariani: Façade 1350-1400 Photo Rio dell'Angelo Raffaele, Venice

Palazzo Ariani: Façade
1350-1400
Photo
Rio dell’Angelo Raffaele, Venice

The palace of the Ariani family was reconstructed during the second half of the 14th century in a unique style. The six-mullioned window, perfectly framed by the indented frieze, is not linked to any architectural sequence, while the section made up of three columns and two pillars and the parapets are part of the Venetian tradition, the innovation lies in the filling of the upper band above the windows. An uncommon feature is the wooden architrave at the corner, creating a low portico held up by columns which look out over the courtyard from which the external two-flight staircase departs.

The design is attributed to a stone-worker architect coming from the outside environment.

The picture shows the Gothic façade on Rio dell’Angelo Raffaele.

Palazzo Priuli all'Osmarin: Façade 1300-10 Photo Fondamenta de l'Osmarin, Venice

Palazzo Priuli all’Osmarin: Façade
1300-10
Photo
Fondamenta de l’Osmarin, Venice

The palace is a typical product of Venetian Gothic art, built at the beginning of the 14th century for the Priuli family which gave three doges and numerous cardinals, magistrates and generals to the city. It faces onto the Osmarin canal, but in the 15th century it was extended along the San Severo canal. The beautiful two-lancet corner windows were constructed during this time.

The façade facing onto the canal was completely covered with frescoes by Palma Vecchio, but unfortunately they have completely disappeared.

The picture shows the palace on Rio dell’Osmarin.

Palazzo Ariani: Façade (detail) 1350-1400 Photo Rio dell'Angelo Raffaele, Venice

Palazzo Ariani: Façade (detail)
1350-1400
Photo
Rio dell’Angelo Raffaele, Venice

Palazzo Dandolo: Façade 14th century Photo Riva dei Schiavoni, Venice

Palazzo Dandolo: Façade
14th century
Photo
Riva dei Schiavoni, Venice

The Palazzo Dandolo was built in the 14th century in Gothic style. In 1822 the palace was purchased by Giuseppe dal Niel, known as Danieli, who transformed it into what is today considered one of the most prestigious hotels in the city, the Hotel Danieli. The interior of the hotel was decorated in neo-medieval style by Tranquillo Orsi.

Palazzo della Fraternità dei Laici 1375-1434 Photo Piazza Grande, Arezzo

Palazzo della Fraternità dei Laici
1375-1434
Photo
Piazza Grande, Arezzo

The Fraternità was endowed in 1262 for the purposes of Christian charity. Its building was planned in 1363, the centenary year of the confraternity. Building work started in 1375 by two Florentine stone-workers, Niccolò di Francesco and Baldino di Cino.

In 1384 the construction came to a stop because of lack of funds. The building of the walls started again in 1434. Bernardo Rossellino continued the façade in a Renaissance style that fits admirably with the Gothic first floor. The gallery was added in 1460 by Giuliano and Algozzo from Settignano. The vaulted campanile, designed by Vasari, was built hundred years later.

The picture shows the façade of the Fraternità (right) and the Palazzo del Tribunale (left).

Interior view c. 1310 Photo Cathedral, Exeter

Interior view
c. 1310
Photo
Cathedral, Exeter

The present building was complete by about 1400, and has several notable features, including an early set of misericords, an astronomical clock and the longest uninterrupted vaulted ceiling in England.

During the 14th and 15th centuries Gothic architecture ceased to be international and split into definable regional styles. In England, the first Gothic style (Early English) was succeeded by Decorated and Perpendicular styles. The nave of Exeter Cathedral, shown here, exemplifies the English Decorated style, the piers formed of thick clusters of shafts, the vaulting-ribs multiplied so that eleven spring from one point.

Exterior view 14th century Photo Cathedral, Canterbury

Exterior view
14th century
Photo
Cathedral, Canterbury

Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. Founded in 597, the cathedral was completely rebuilt from 1070 to 1077. The east end was greatly enlarged at the beginning of the twelfth century, and largely rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop who was murdered in the cathedral in 1170.

The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late fourteenth century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures. From the late fourteenth century the nave and transepts were rebuilt, on the Norman foundations in the Perpendicular style under the direction of the noted master mason Henry Yevele.

Exterior view 14th century Photo Cathedral, Canterbury

Exterior view
14th century
Photo
Cathedral, Canterbury

Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. Founded in 597, the cathedral was completely rebuilt from 1070 to 1077. The east end was greatly enlarged at the beginning of the twelfth century, and largely rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop who was murdered in the cathedral in 1170.

The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late fourteenth century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures. From the late fourteenth century the nave and transepts were rebuilt, on the Norman foundations in the Perpendicular style under the direction of the noted master mason Henry Yevele.

Next week, a two-part series begins – 15th Century Architecture.

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