#WarriorWednesday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth: Duty, Honor, Courage, Sacrifice, Remember, Honor

Honoring Their Own May 2011: U.S. Navy, United States Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard personnel unfurl an American flag on the flight deck of the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum at a Memorial Day ceremony during Fleet Week New York. Fleet Week has been New York City’s celebration of the sea services since 1984 and is an opportunity for citizens of New York and the surrounding area to meet Sailors, Marines and Coast Guardsmen and see firsthand the capabilities of today’s maritime services.  Photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Matthew R. White.

Honoring Their Own
May 2011: U.S. Navy, United States Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard personnel unfurl an American flag on the flight deck of the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum at a Memorial Day ceremony during Fleet Week New York. Fleet Week has been New York City’s celebration of the sea services since 1984 and is an opportunity for citizens of New York and the surrounding area to meet Sailors, Marines and Coast Guardsmen and see firsthand the capabilities of today’s maritime services.
Photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Matthew R. White.

The Heritage of the Military Funeral and Burial at Sea

Honoring the deceased is a centuries-old practice that includes many traditions across cultures. The customs and traditions behind military funerals and burial at sea date as far back as ancient Greece and Rome. In the Navy’s culture, as  the final honor to give to shipmates, traditions are employed that not only signify the service of the deceased, but also display our nation’s commitment to their legacy.

Atlantic Ocean, December 6, 2014. Capt. John Carter, commanding officer of the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan (LHD 5) salutes during a burial-at-sea.  Bataan is conducting an underway evolution in preparation for an upcoming planned maintenance availability.  U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Julie Matyascik

Atlantic Ocean, December 6, 2014.
Capt. John Carter, commanding officer of the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan (LHD 5) salutes during a burial-at-sea. Bataan is conducting an underway evolution in preparation for an upcoming planned maintenance availability.
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Julie Matyascik

Reversal of Rank

In Royal Connell and William Mack’s “Naval Ceremonies, Customs, and Traditions,”it is noted that the reversal of rank at military funerals is modeled after an ancient Roman custom of “reversing all rank and position when celebrating the feast of Saturn,”showing that, at death, all are equal. This is signified by positioning the honorary pallbearers and all other mourners, if practicable, in reverse order of rank.

Firing Three Volleys

The custom of firing three volleys at funerals comes from an old superstition. It was once thought that evil spirits escape from the hearts of the deceased, so shots are fired to drive away those evil spirits. “The number three has long had a mystical significance,”write Connell and Mack. They note that in Roman funeral rites, earth was cast three times into a grave, mourners called the dead three times by name, and the Latin word vale, meaning “farewell,”was spoken three times as they left the tomb. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs also notes that the firing of three volleys “can be traced to the European dynastic wars when fighting was halted to remove the dead and wounded.”The funeral volley should not be mistaken for the twenty-one gun salute which is fired for the U.S. President, other heads of state, Washington’s birthday, and the Fourth of July. At Navy military funerals today, three volleys are fired by a firing detail of seven riflemen during the funeral of active duty personnel, Medal of Honor recipients, and retirees just before the sounding of taps.

Pacific Ocean, August 19, 2007. US Navy flag bearers bow their heads in prayer during a burial at sea ceremony aboard Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72). Lincoln conducted the solemn and sacred tradition of burial at sea for 11 former service members during her transit home to Everett, Washington. Lincoln completed carrier qualifications, Tailored Ship's Training Availability and Final Evaluation Problem during a scheduled work-up off the coast of Southern California.  U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class James R. Evans.

Pacific Ocean, August 19, 2007.
US Navy flag bearers bow their heads in prayer during a burial at sea ceremony aboard Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72). Lincoln conducted the solemn and sacred tradition of burial at sea for 11 former service members during her transit home to Everett, Washington. Lincoln completed carrier qualifications, Tailored Ship’s Training Availability and Final Evaluation Problem during a scheduled work-up off the coast of Southern California.
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class James R. Evans.

Taps

The sounding of taps is perhaps one of the most moving and well known elements of military funerals. According to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, taps originated from the French final call, “L’Extinction des feux,”to extinguish the lights. This “lights out”bugle call was used by the U.S. Army infantry during the Civil War, but in 1862 Gen. Daniel Adams Butterfield suggested a revision of the French tune, and we now have the 24-note bugle call we hear today. Taps was first played at a military funeral in Virginia when Union Capt. John Tidball ordered it to be played as a substitute to the traditional three rifle volleys so as not to reveal the battery’s position to the nearby enemy. At Navy military funerals today, taps is played by a military bugler after the firing of three volleys and just before the flag is folded.

The National Ensign

The National Ensign plays a very special role in today’s military funeral traditions. The custom of placing a flag over the body of a fallen soldier has been recorded in the days before the American Revolution when a private in the British Guards by the name of Stephen Graham wrote that the Union Jack was laid upon the body of a fallen soldier who died in the service of the State to show that the State “takes the responsibility of what it ordered him to do as a solider.”Today, this custom is practiced in American military funerals as a way to honor the service of the deceased veteran. The National Ensign is draped over the casket so the union blue field is at the head and over the left shoulder of the deceased. After Taps is sounded, the body bearers fold the flag 13 times—representing the 13 original colonies—into a triangle, emblematic of the tri-cornered hat word by the Patriots of the American Revolution. When folded, only the blue field with stars should be visible. The flag is then presented to the next of kin or other appropriate family member.

Arabian Sea, April 9, 2011. Sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) prepare to cast ashes overboard during a burial at sea.  Enterprise and Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 1 are conducting close-air support missions in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility.  U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Jesse L. Gonzalez.

Arabian Sea, April 9, 2011.
Sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) prepare to cast ashes overboard during a burial at sea.
Enterprise and Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 1 are conducting close-air support missions in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility.
U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Jesse L. Gonzalez.

Burial at Sea

Another type of ceremony for honoring the deceased is the burial at sea (also called the “at sea disposition”) performed on a U.S. Navy vessel. According to the Naval History and Heritage Command, the tradition of burial at sea is one that dates back to ancient times and has been a practice for as long as people have gone to sea. The body was sewn into a weighted sailcloth and in very old custom, the last stitch was taken through the nose of the deceased. The body was then sent over the side, usually with an appropriate religious ceremony.

During World War II, many burials at sea took place when naval forces operated at sea for months at a time. Today, active duty service members, honorably discharged retirees, veterans, U.S. civilian marine personnel of the Military Sealift Command, and dependent family members of active duty, retirees, and veterans are eligible for at sea disposition.

The ceremony for burial at sea is conducted in a similar manner to that of shore funerals, with three volleys fired, the sounding of taps, and the closing of colors. The casket or urn is slid overboard into the sea after the committal is read, or, if requested, the cremated remains are scattered into the sea. Flowers or wreaths are also allowed to slide overboard or tossed into the sea by a flag bearer.

Because the committal ceremony is performed while a ship is deployed, family members are not permitted to attend burials at sea. So, within 10 days after committal, the commanding officer of the ship will mail a letter giving the date and time of committal and include any photographs or video of the ceremony, the commemorative flag, and a chart showing where the burial took place.

For many centuries, funerals have been a way to give our final respects to our loved ones. The customs and traditions that we share during the ceremony make it all the more meaningful.

HonoringTheFallen

World War II Unknown Serviceman

Ceremonies for the selection of the World War II Unknown Serviceman were conducted on board USS Canberra (CAG 2) on May 26, 1958. Medal of Honor recipient Hospitalman William R. Charette, selected the Unknown Serviceman. After the ceremonies, the ‪‎WWII‬ Unknown Serviceman was transported for interment at Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day‬, which fell on May 31.

Private First Class Frank Calvin, USMC, places the wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Private Calvin is himself the recipient of two Navy Crosses, the Purple Heart, and the Presidential Unit Citation, circa 1943.

Private First Class Frank Calvin, USMC, places the wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Private Calvin is himself the recipient of two Navy Crosses, the Purple Heart, and the Presidential Unit Citation, circa 1943.

Unknown Servicemen of World War II and the Korean War. Crewmen of USS Boston (CAG 1) render honors as the first casket is transferred to USS Canberra (CAG-2), prior to ceremonies on board Canberra to select the Unknown Serviceman of World War II. Two more caskets are still on board Boston, visible just aft of the starboard whaleboat davits. The ceremonies took place off the Virginia Capes on 26 May 1958. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Unknown Servicemen of World War II and the Korean War. Crewmen of USS Boston (CAG 1) render honors as the first casket is transferred to USS Canberra (CAG-2), prior to ceremonies on board Canberra to select the Unknown Serviceman of World War II. Two more caskets are still on board Boston, visible just aft of the starboard whaleboat davits. The ceremonies took place off the Virginia Capes on 26 May 1958. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Unknown Servicemen of World War II and the Korean War. Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, who received the Medal of Honor for Korean War heroism, selects the Unknown Serviceman of World War II, during ceremonies on board USS Canberra (CAG-2) off the Virginia Capes on 26 May 1958. The other World War II Unknown Serviceman candidate's casket is at left, with the Unknown Serviceman of the Korean War in the middle. The other Unknown Serviceman from WWII not chose was given a solemn burial at sea. After completion of the selection ceremonies, the World War II and Korean War Unknown Servicemen were carried to Washington, D.C., for burial at Arlington Cemetery. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. Note: At that time, Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette was the Navy's only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient.

Unknown Servicemen of World War II and the Korean War. Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, who received the Medal of Honor for Korean War heroism, selects the Unknown Serviceman of World War II, during ceremonies on board USS Canberra (CAG-2) off the Virginia Capes on 26 May 1958. The other World War II Unknown Serviceman candidate’s casket is at left, with the Unknown Serviceman of the Korean War in the middle. The other Unknown Serviceman from WWII not chose was given a solemn burial at sea. After completion of the selection ceremonies, the World War II and Korean War Unknown Servicemen were carried to Washington, D.C., for burial at Arlington Cemetery. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.
Note: At that time, Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette was the Navy’s only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient.

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Above photo: An Army member of the joint services casket team carries the folded U.S. flag from the casket of the Unknown Serviceman of the Vietnam Era to President Ronald Reagan, left, during the interment ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery. Photographed by Mickey Sanborn, 28 May 1984.

The Unknown service member from the Vietnam War was designated by Medal of Honor recipient U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. Allan Jay Kellogg Jr. during a ceremony at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, May 17, 1984. The Vietnam Unknown was transported aboard the USS Brewton to Alameda Naval Base, Calif. The remains were sent to Travis Air Force Base, Calif., May 24. The Vietnam Unknown arrived at Andrews Air Force Base, Md., the next day.

Many Vietnam veterans and President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan visited the Vietnam Unknown in the U.S. Capitol. An Army caisson carried the Vietnam Unknown from the Capitol to the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day, May 28, 1984. President Reagan presided over the funeral, and presented the Medal of Honor to the Vietnam Unknown.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower poses with three men to whom he has just presented the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gallantry in Korean War combat action, at the White House, Washington, D.C., 12 January 1954. Those who received the medal are (from left to right): First Lieutenant Edward R. Schowalter, Jr., U.S. Army, honored for his actions near Kumhwa, Korea, on 14 October 1952; Private First Class Ernest E. West, U.S. Army, honored for his actions near Sataeri, Korea, on 12 October 1952; and Hospital Corpsman Third Class William R. Charette, U.S. Navy, honored for his actions in Korea on 17 March 1953. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower poses with three men to whom he has just presented the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gallantry in Korean War combat action, at the White House, Washington, D.C., 12 January 1954. Those who received the medal are (from left to right): First Lieutenant Edward R. Schowalter, Jr., U.S. Army, honored for his actions near Kumhwa, Korea, on 14 October 1952; Private First Class Ernest E. West, U.S. Army, honored for his actions near Sataeri, Korea, on 12 October 1952; and Hospital Corpsman Third Class William R. Charette, U.S. Navy, honored for his actions in Korea on 17 March 1953. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

1973, the first U.S. manned orbiting space station, Skylab 2, was launched with an all US Navy‬ crew. Commanding was Capt. Charles Conrad, Jr., with Cmdr. Paul J. Weitz, as the pilot, and Cmdr. Joseph P. Kerwin as the science pilot. Recovery was by USS Ticonderoga (CVS 14)…

Skylab 2 Astronauts pictured in-front of a Skylab 2 model. Left to right: Cmdr. Joseph P. Kerwin, USN; Capt. Charles Conrad, Jr., USN; and Cmdr. Paul J. Weitz, USN. NASA Photograph.

Skylab 2 Astronauts pictured in-front of a Skylab 2 model. Left to right: Cmdr. Joseph P. Kerwin, USN; Capt. Charles Conrad, Jr., USN; and Cmdr. Paul J. Weitz, USN. NASA Photograph.

USS Ticonderoga (CVS 14). With her rails manned, circa 1970-72, following conversion to an anti-submarine warfare support aircraft carrier. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Ticonderoga (CVS 14). With her rails manned, circa 1970-72, following conversion to an anti-submarine warfare support aircraft carrier. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

These three men are the crewmen for the first manned Skylab mission. They are Charles Conrad Jr., commander, standing left; scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, seated; and Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot. They were photographed and interviewed during an "open house" press day in the realistic atmosphere of the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The control and display panel for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) is at right. NASA Photograph Collection.

These three men are the crewmen for the first manned Skylab mission. They are Charles Conrad Jr., commander, standing left; scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, seated; and Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot. They were photographed and interviewed during an “open house” press day in the realistic atmosphere of the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The control and display panel for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) is at right. NASA Photograph Collection.

Heroes and Warriors, all of them!

On the Web: Request Military Funeral Honors

For information on requesting military funeral honors, visit https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/mfh.

For detailed information and protocol for Navy military funerals, see Bureau of Naval Personnel instruction NAVPERS 15555D. For information on burial at sea, contact the U.S. Navy Mortuary Affairs Burial At Sea Program.

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#WarriorWednesday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth

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A weekly feature chronicling the sacrifices and achievements of the brave men & women of the US Armed Forces.

1969, Apollo 10 is launched. The mission is a dress rehearsal for the first lunar landing. Cmdr. John W. Young is the command module pilot and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, the lunar module pilot. HS-4 helicopters from USS Princeton (LPH 5) recover the Apollo crew upon splashdown.

Apollo 10 crew. Col. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (commanded the mission); Cmdr. John W. Young, USN, and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, USN, Apollo 10’s Mission Report. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, Aviation, Space.

Apollo 10 crew. Col. Thomas P. Stafford, USAF (commanded the mission); Cmdr. John W. Young, USN, and Cmdr. Eugene A. Cernan, USN, Apollo 10’s Mission Report. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, Aviation, Space.

Navy helicopter arrives to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module "Charlie Brown" floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft. NASA Photograph Collection

Navy helicopter arrives to recover the Apollo 10 astronauts, seen entering a life raft, as the Command Module “Charlie Brown” floats in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa. Note that in this photo the divers have attached a flotation collar to the spacecraft. NASA Photograph Collection

Starboard broadside view of USS Princeton (LPH 5) at sea during the operation to recover the Apollo 10 spacecraft in May, 1969. Visible on the flight deck are SH-34 Seabat and SH-3 Sea King helicopters. The rounded structure on the forward part of the flight deck is for use in housing the space capsule. US Navy and Marine Corps Museum/Naval Aviation Museum.

Starboard broadside view of USS Princeton (LPH 5) at sea during the operation to recover the Apollo 10 spacecraft in May, 1969. Visible on the flight deck are SH-34 Seabat and SH-3 Sea King helicopters. The rounded structure on the forward part of the flight deck is for use in housing the space capsule.
US Navy and Marine Corps Museum/Naval Aviation Museum.

Emblem of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. NASA Photograph Collection.

Emblem of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. NASA Photograph Collection.

1973, Capt. Robin Lindsay Catherine Quigley becomes the first woman to hold a major Navy command when she assumes command of U.S. Navy Service School, San Diego, Calif. She previously served as the director of the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) from 1970 to 1972.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, pictured in 1971. She would later be the first woman to hold a major Navy Command as Commanding Officer of Navy Service School, San Diego, CA on 17 May 1973. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, pictured in 1971. She would later be the first woman to hold a major Navy Command as Commanding Officer of Navy Service School, San Diego, CA on 17 May 1973. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, answers questions for a Kansas City reporter during an interview concerning a new profile of women’s service in the Navy. She was one of over 700 Navy women attending the 30th Anniversary National Convention of Navy women held in Kansas City. Captain Quigley stated, “there are exciting, challenging and promising things going on in the People Business in the Navy these days and women are a part of it.” She added, “we are moving off in new and uncharted directions and breaking with old and comfortable ways of doing things.” When asked if women were part of the Navy, felt that women were definitely part of the “now Navy.” NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Capt. Robin Lindsay Quigley, USN, answers questions for a Kansas City reporter during an interview concerning a new profile of women’s service in the Navy. She was one of over 700 Navy women attending the 30th Anniversary National Convention of Navy women held in Kansas City. Captain Quigley stated, “there are exciting, challenging and promising things going on in the People Business in the Navy these days and women are a part of it.” She added, “we are moving off in new and uncharted directions and breaking with old and comfortable ways of doing things.” When asked if women were part of the Navy, felt that women were definitely part of the “now Navy.” NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Lt. j.g. Robin L.C. Quigley, USN, shown while visiting the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington D.C., photographed circa 1959. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

Lt. j.g. Robin L.C. Quigley, USN, shown while visiting the U.S. Naval Gun Factory, Washington D.C., photographed circa 1959. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, People.

1953, the publishing of the official history of the Women’s Army Corps in WWII, “United States Army in World War II Special Studies: The Women’s Army Corps” by Mattie Treadwell. Originally published by the US Army Center of Military History,  it is still one of the best sources on the subject of WACs through WWII and is a daily resource for the staff of the Army Women’s Museum.

World War II photo of Mattie Treadwell.

World War II photo of Mattie Treadwell.

Mattie E. Treadwell, a native of Texas, held a B.A. and an M.A. degree from the University of Texas. During World War II she was an officer, first in the WAAC and later in the WAC, holding such assignments as assistant to the Director WAC, assistant to the Air WAC Officer, and assistant to the Commandant, School of WAC Personnel Administration. She had the additional distinction of having been a member of the first class of women sent to the Command and General Staff School. While on active duty she attained the rank of lieutenant colonel.

From September 1947 to March 1952 Miss Treadwell was a historian in the Office of the Chief of Military History. Upon her departure she became Assistant Director, Dallas Regional Office, Federal Civil Defense Administration, in charge of women’s activities and volunteer manpower, an office that she currently holds. Her last military status was that of a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve.

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Above photo: ‪‎US Army‬ Paratroopers, from 4th Brigade Combat Team (Airborne), 25th Infantry Division, U.S. Army Alaska, and currently assigned to KFOR Multinational Battle Group-East, conduct airborne operations near Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo, May 19, 2015.

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Above photo: U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers, assigned to the 411th Engineer Brigade, 412th Theater Engineer Command, return from a situational training exercise where they constructed an improvised ribbon bridge across the Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wis., May 14, 2015, part of Warrior Exercise 15-02. ‪‎US Army‬ photo by Staff Sgt. Debralee Best.

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Above photo: US Army‬ Soldiers, assigned to 3rd Infantry Division, conduct security operations during an urban warfare training exercise, part of Exercise Noble Partner in Vaziani, Georgia (Eastern Europe) May 17, 2015. ‪ ‎Noble Partner‬ is a bilateral effort focused on enhancing U.S. and Georgian NATO Response Force interoperability. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Daniel Cole.

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Above photo: A US Army‬ Soldier, assigned to 173rd Airborne Brigade and Slovenian 1st Brigade soldiers conduct sling load operations, attaching a trailer to a Slovenian Cougar helicopter, during Exercise Neptune Thrust‬ at Pocek Range in Postonja, Slovenia, May 15, 2015. Neptune Thrust is a combined exercise between U.S. and Slovenian soldiers, focused on enhancing interoperability and developing individual technical skills. U.S. Army photo by Visual Information Specialist Paolo Bovo.

Sacramento Marine recruiter honored for work in Iraq

Marine Corps Maj Daniel Grainger, commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, will be honored Thursday, May 14, 2015 for his leadership of a rifle company that ended up protecting the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, last year. (U.S Marine Corps)

Marine Corps Maj Daniel Grainger, commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, will be honored Thursday, May 14, 2015 for his leadership of a rifle company that ended up protecting the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, last year. (U.S Marine Corps)

A Sacramento, Calif.-based Marine Corps infantry officer and recruiter who began his military career as an enlisted man will receive a coveted award for leadership Thursday night.

Maj Daniel Grainger, currently the commanding officer of Marine Recruiting Station Sacramento, earned the Lt Col William Leftwich Jr. Trophy for Outstanding Leadership for his actions last year in an increasingly chaotic Iraq.

Read the full story at the Miami Herald

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Above: Marines watch each other’s backs. Here, a combat engineer checks for IEDs while leading a patrol during a training exercise at Udairi Range, Kuwait.

WarriorWednesday

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#MilitaryMonday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth

Military thank you

A weekly feature honoring the military and the sacrifices they make for freedom, covered in historical images.

1930, the streamlined submarine (V 5) was commissioned. In February 1931, she was named Narwhal, and received the hull number (SS 167) that July. During WWII, Narwhal received 15 battle stars for her war patrols in the Pacific.

Navy Poster, showing USS Narwhal (SS 167). Artwork by Matt Murphy, 8 January 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77240.

Navy Poster, showing USS Narwhal (SS 167). Artwork by Matt Murphy, 8 January 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77240.

USS Narwhal (SS 167), artwork by Gordon Grant, 1943. Lithograph by Northern Pump Company, 1943. Courtesy of Captain R.M. Barnes, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95377-KN (Color)

USS Narwhal (SS 167), artwork by Gordon Grant, 1943. Lithograph by Northern Pump Company, 1943. Courtesy of Captain R.M. Barnes, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95377-KN (Color)

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Above: Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. Aerial view of the Submarine Base, with part of the supply depot beyond and the fuel farm at right, looking north on 13 October 1941. Note the fuel tank across the road from the submarine base, painted to resemble a building. The building beside the submarine ascent tower (in left center, shaped like an upside down “U”) housed the U.S. Fleet Headquarters at the time of the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941.

Office of Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, the Fleet’s Commander in Chief, was in the upper left corner of the building’s top floor. USS Wharton (AP-7) is in right foreground. Among the submarines at the base are Tuna (SS-203), Gudgeon (SS-211), Argonaut (SS-166), Narwhal (SS-167), Triton (SS-201) and Dolphin (SS-169). USS Holland (AS-3) and USS Niagara (PG-52) are alongside the wharf on the base’s north side. In the distance (nearest group in upper left) are the battleship Nevada (BB-36), at far left, USS Castor (AKS-1) and the derelict old minelayer Baltimore. Cruisers in top center are USS Minneapolis (CA-36), closest to camera, and USS Pensacola (CA-24), wearing a Measure 5 painted “bow wave”. National Archives photograph: 80-G-451125.

USS Narwhal (SS 167) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, 3 April 1943.  Both the Narwhal and her sister Nautiliss were used heavily for the Marine Raiders. Their two 6 inch deck guns could give quite effective fire support. National Archives photograph, 190-N-42917.

USS Narwhal (SS 167) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, 3 April 1943. Both the Narwhal and her sister Nautiliss were used heavily for the Marine Raiders. Their two 6 inch deck guns could give quite effective fire support. National Archives photograph, 190-N-42917.

1900, USS Kentucky (BB 6) is commissioned. In 1907, she joined the Great White Fleet, returning in 1909.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photographed in July 1900, a few months after she was commissioned. Courtesy of the Filson Club, Louisville, KY. Gift of Mrs. Alexander M. Watson. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photographed in July 1900, a few months after she was commissioned. Courtesy of the Filson Club, Louisville, KY. Gift of Mrs. Alexander M. Watson. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky ship's officers, crew and Marines, circa 1914. Most of the Marines are wearing khaki field uniforms. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky ship’s officers, crew and Marines, circa 1914. Most of the Marines are wearing khaki field uniforms. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photograph taken circa 1912-1916, after modernization with basket masts. It has been color-tinted and published on a post card. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

USS Kentucky (BB 6) photograph taken circa 1912-1916, after modernization with basket masts. It has been color-tinted and published on a post card. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

1919, the Marine detachment from USS Arizona (BB 39) guards the U.S. consulate at Constantinople, Turkey, during the Greek occupation of the city.

In June 1915, the crowd witnesses Miss Esther Ross, sponsor of the battleship Arizona, arrive. Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

In June 1915, the crowd witnesses Miss Esther Ross, sponsor of the battleship Arizona, arrive.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

USS Arizona's ship's complement posing on her forecastle, forward turrets and superstructure, circa 1924. The officer seated in the second row, 4th from right, is Ensign Arleigh A. Burke. USNHC # NH 86101, courtesy of Naval Historical Center, from the Collection of Admiral Arleigh A. Burke.

USS Arizona’s ship’s complement posing on her forecastle, forward turrets and superstructure, circa 1924. The officer seated in the second row, 4th from right, is Ensign Arleigh A. Burke. USNHC # NH 86101, courtesy of Naval Historical Center, from the Collection of Admiral Arleigh A. Burke.

A French built Nieuport aircraft is pictured on a wooden deck constructed atop a turret. Note the Arizona's (BB 39) bell behind the plane.  Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

A French built Nieuport aircraft is pictured on a wooden deck constructed atop a turret.
Note the Arizona’s (BB 39) bell behind the plane.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

Arizona (BB 39) anchored, possibly on the Hudson after returning from Europe. Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

Arizona (BB 39) anchored, possibly on the Hudson after returning from Europe.
Courtesy of The Library of Congress.

1801, Tripoli declares war on the United States for not increasing the annual tribute paid as protection money to prevent raids on its ships. Within less than a week, a squadron, under Commodore Richard Dale, sets sail to protect American interests and arrives July 1 at Gibraltar.

USS President, 1800-1815, artwork by Boucher done in 1819 and captioned, “United States Frigate ‘President’, flagship of the American Squadron, Captain Stephen Decatur, 1819.” NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 592.

USS President, 1800-1815, artwork by Boucher done in 1819 and captioned, “United States Frigate ‘President’, flagship of the American Squadron, Captain Stephen Decatur, 1819.” NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 592.

“The Assault on Derna, Tripoli, 27 April 1805.” Artwork by Charles Waterhouse. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division. After a bombardment of Tripoli, a landing party with Lieutenant O'Bannon of the Marines in command hauled down the Tripolitan flag and hoisted Old Glory for the first time over a fort in the old world. April 27, 1805. Copy of artwork by Capolino., 1927 – 1981

“The Assault on Derna, Tripoli, 27 April 1805.” Artwork by Charles Waterhouse. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division.
After a bombardment of Tripoli, a landing party with Lieutenant O’Bannon of the Marines in command hauled down the Tripolitan flag and hoisted Old Glory for the first time over a fort in the old world. April 27, 1805. Copy of artwork by Capolino., 1927 – 1981

"Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat", during the bombardment of Tripoli, 3 August 1804. Oil by Dennis Malone Carter, 43" x 59", depicting Lieutenant Stephen Decatur (lower right center) in mortal combat with the Tripolitan Captain. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Washington, DC. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 44647-KN (Color).

“Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat”, during the bombardment of Tripoli, 3 August 1804. Oil by Dennis Malone Carter, 43″ x 59″, depicting Lieutenant Stephen Decatur (lower right center) in mortal combat with the Tripolitan Captain. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Washington, DC. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 44647-KN (Color).

1964, the first all-nuclear-powered task group, USS Enterprise (CVAN 65), USS Long Beach (CGN 9) and USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25), is organized and deploys to the Sixth Fleet. The task group departs in July and circumnavigates the globe without refueling.

Task Force One (All-Nuclear Task Force) operating in the Mediterranean Sea, 18 June 1964. Enterprise crewmembers are spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy on the flight deck. National Archives Photograph, KN 9027 (Color).

Task Force One (All-Nuclear Task Force) operating in the Mediterranean Sea, 18 June 1964. Enterprise crewmembers are spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy on the flight deck. National Archives Photograph, KN 9027 (Color).

Task Force One: USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25); USS Long Beach (CGN 9); and USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) in Operation Sea Orbit, which was the first circumnavigation of the glob by a nuclear-powered naval power, 31 August – 3 October 1964. Artwork by Captain Gerard Richardson, USNR. National Archives photograph: KN 9983 (Color).

Task Force One: USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25); USS Long Beach (CGN 9); and USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) in Operation Sea Orbit, which was the first circumnavigation of the glob by a nuclear-powered naval power, 31 August – 3 October 1964. Artwork by Captain Gerard Richardson, USNR. National Archives photograph: KN 9983 (Color).

USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25). Underway during her sea trials, 2-3 September 1962. Photographed by Areostatico. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98103.

USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25). Underway during her sea trials, 2-3 September 1962. Photographed by Areostatico. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98103.

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Above: USS Enterprise (CVAN 65) underway in formation with USS Long Beach (CGN 9), center, and USS Bainbridge (DLGN 25), at top, probably in the Mediterranean Sea in June-July 1964. Members of Enterprise’s crew are in a flight deck formation spelling out Albert Einstein’s equation for nuclear energy. Planes on her flight deck include 9 A-5, 22 A-4; 10 F-4; 14 F-8 and 2 E-1 types. Those aft are parked in an arrowhead arrangement. The photograph was released for publication on 30 July 1964, upon the commencement of Operation Sea Orbit, the circumnavigation of the World by Task Force One, made up of the Navy’s first three nuclear-powered surface ships. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the Collections of the Naval Historical Center.

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#WarriorWednesday #MilitaryAppreciationMonth

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A weekly feature with news, history and photos in appreciation of the brave men and women who protect our freedom.

MAM

In 1908, the Navy Nurse Corps is established by Public Law No. 115, though nurses have been volunteering on board Navy ships beforehand.

Navy Nurse Recruiting Poster, issued November 1950. Artwork by Blasingame. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 78844

Navy Nurse Recruiting Poster, issued November 1950. Artwork by Blasingame. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 78844

Navy nurses looking ashore in this early 20th century photograph.

Navy nurses looking ashore in this early 20th century photograph.

USS Relief (AH 1) and some of her nursing staff, March 1921. Principal Chief Nurse J. Beatrice Bowman is standing in the center, 4th from right. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 53047.

USS Relief (AH 1) and some of her nursing staff, March 1921. Principal Chief Nurse J. Beatrice Bowman is standing in the center, 4th from right. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 53047.

Trinidad and Tobago (Oct. 29, 2008) Lt. Cmdr. Kathaleen Sikes, a Navy nurse embarked aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3), listens to a young woman during a routine check-up at a medical clinic at the Couva District Health Facility during the humanitarian/civic assistance mission Continuing Promise (CP) 2008. Kearsarge is the primary platform for the Caribbean phase of CP, an equal-partnership mission involving the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Brazil, Nicaragua, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana.

Trinidad and Tobago (Oct. 29, 2008) Lt. Cmdr. Kathaleen Sikes, a Navy nurse embarked aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge (LHD 3), listens to a young woman during a routine check-up at a medical clinic at the Couva District Health Facility during the humanitarian/civic assistance mission Continuing Promise (CP) 2008. Kearsarge is the primary platform for the Caribbean phase of CP, an equal-partnership mission involving the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Brazil, Nicaragua, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) is commissioned in  May 1938. Notable service during WWII‬ include the Doolittle Raid, the Battle of Midway, the Guadalcanal Campaign, Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Okinawa Campaign.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) steams toward the Panama Canal on 10 October 1945, while en route to New York to participate in Navy Day celebrations. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) steams toward the Panama Canal on 10 October 1945, while en route to New York to participate in Navy Day celebrations. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) F6F Hellcat fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) F6F Hellcat fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, October 1942. A Japanese bomb explodes off the port side of USS Enterprise (CV 6) during the action, 26 October 1942. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, October 1942. A Japanese bomb explodes off the port side of USS Enterprise (CV 6) during the action, 26 October 1942. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) F6F Hellcat fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Enterprise (CV 6) F6F Hellcat fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

1942, the USS Massachusetts (BB 59) is commissioned. She serves in both the Atlantic and Pacific during World War II, notably participating in Operation Torch, Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the bombing of the Japanese homeland.

USS Massachusetts (BB 59) seen from the after deck of USS Alabama (BB 60), in Casco Bay, Maine, January 1943. The muzzles of Alabama's after 16

USS Massachusetts (BB 59) seen from the after deck of USS Alabama (BB 60), in Casco Bay, Maine, January 1943. The muzzles of Alabama’s after 16″/45 guns are in the foreground. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-416 (Color).

USS Massachusetts (BB 59). Underway at 15 knots off Point Wilson, Washington, on 11 July 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 97255.

USS Massachusetts (BB 59). Underway at 15 knots off Point Wilson, Washington, on 11 July 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 97255.

USS Massachusetts (BB 59). View looking forward from the ship's after deck, during a lull in the Battle of Casablanca, 8 November 1942. Note: 16

USS Massachusetts (BB 59). View looking forward from the ship’s after deck, during a lull in the Battle of Casablanca, 8 November 1942. Note: 16″/45 guns of her after turret; 20mm gun at left with “Lead, Dammit, Lead” printed on its shield; FC & FD radar antennas atop her gun directors; two large National Ensigns flying from her masts. Collection of Rear Admiral Clifford Van Hook, 1972. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 84534.

Invasion of North Africa, November 1942. Anti-aircraft fire chases four French fighters away from an American spotting plane, during the early morning hours of the Battle of Casablanca, 8 November 1942. Photographed from the after deck of USS Massachusetts (BB 59). Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-38832.

Invasion of North Africa, November 1942. Anti-aircraft fire chases four French fighters away from an American spotting plane, during the early morning hours of the Battle of Casablanca, 8 November 1942. Photographed from the after deck of USS Massachusetts (BB 59). Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-38832.

1946, USS Philippine Sea (CV 47) is commissioned. During her career, Philippine Sea served first in the Atlantic Ocean and saw several deployments to the Mediterranean Sea as well as a trip to Antarctica as a part of Operation Highjump.

Philippine Sea was not the first choice for the name of this carrier. When the keel was laid, she was the USS Wright named in honor of the Wright Brothers.

National Archives Photo 80-G-439871: USS Philippine Sea (CV 47). Grumman F9F-2 Panther fighters of Fighter Squadrons 111 and 112 (VF-111 & VF-112) parked on the flight deck, forward, during a snowstorm off the Korean coast, 15 November 1950.

National Archives Photo 80-G-439871: USS Philippine Sea (CV 47). Grumman F9F-2 Panther fighters of Fighter Squadrons 111 and 112 (VF-111 & VF-112) parked on the flight deck, forward, during a snowstorm off the Korean coast, 15 November 1950.

USS Philippine Sea (CV 47) passes under the Oakland Bay Bridge as she arrives at San Francisco, California, upon her return from the Korean War zone, circa 9 June 1951. Crewmen on the flight deck are spelling out

USS Philippine Sea (CV 47) passes under the Oakland Bay Bridge as she arrives at San Francisco, California, upon her return from the Korean War zone, circa 9 June 1951. Crewmen on the flight deck are spelling out “CVG 2” in honor of her air group.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center (photo # NH 97322).

Members of USS Philippine Sea (CV 47) Ordnance Department pose with decorated 2000-pound bombs, during Korean War operations, 9 March 1951. Messages painted on the bombs are:

Members of USS Philippine Sea (CV 47) Ordnance Department pose with decorated 2000-pound bombs, during Korean War operations, 9 March 1951. Messages painted on the bombs are: “Greetings from PhilCee”; “Happy Easter”; and “Listen! To This One it will Kill you”. Among the planes parked in the background are F4U-4Bs of Fighter Squadron 113 (VF-113).
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives (photo # 80-G-439895).

A Grumman F9F-2 Panther from Fighter Squadron (VF) 112 on the flight deck of USS Philippine Sea (CV 47), during operations off Korea, circa October 1950. Note spectators on the island walkways. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives (photo # 80-G-420946).

A Grumman F9F-2 Panther from Fighter Squadron (VF) 112 on the flight deck of USS Philippine Sea (CV 47), during operations off Korea, circa October 1950.
Note spectators on the island walkways.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives (photo # 80-G-420946).

In 1943, in the Attu Operation, Task Force 16, commanded by Rear Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid, landed a force of 3,000 U.S. Army troops of the 7th Infantry Division in the cold and the mist of the Aleutians.

Attu Operation, May 1943. Soldiers climb down the side of USS Heywood (APA 6) into landing craft alongside off Attu, 11 May 1943. Note M-1 carbines carried by some of these men. National Archives photograph: 80-G-50770.

Attu Operation, May 1943. Soldiers climb down the side of USS Heywood (APA 6) into landing craft alongside off Attu, 11 May 1943. Note M-1 carbines carried by some of these men. National Archives photograph: 80-G-50770.

Attu Invasion, May 1943. The first American flag to fly over Attu was erected on the conning shield of this abandoned Japanese landing craft, circa 11 May 1943. Note that the boat’s helical propeller and “old fashioned” anchor. U.S. Army Photograph: SC-171525

Attu Invasion, May 1943. The first American flag to fly over Attu was erected on the conning shield of this abandoned Japanese landing craft, circa 11 May 1943. Note that the boat’s helical propeller and “old fashioned” anchor. U.S. Army Photograph: SC-171525

USS Louisville (CA 28) shells Attu, 11 May 1943 View of forward 8” guns in action. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92382.

USS Louisville (CA 28) shells Attu, 11 May 1943 View of forward 8” guns in action. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92382.

Massacre Bay, Attu, Aleutian Islands. A PBY-5A “Catalina” patrol bomber takes off on a patrol, circa May 1943, soon after the U.S. recaptured the island. USS Casco (AVP 12) is in the background. Photograph released on 4 June 1953. National Archives photograph: 80-G-65978.

Massacre Bay, Attu, Aleutian Islands. A PBY-5A “Catalina” patrol bomber takes off on a patrol, circa May 1943, soon after the U.S. recaptured the island. USS Casco (AVP 12) is in the background. Photograph released on 4 June 1953. National Archives photograph: 80-G-65978.

Sad news from last night: Academy midshipman killed in Amtrak crash

Emergency personnel gather Wednesday in North Philadelphia at the scene of a deadly train derailment. A midshipman aboard the New York-bound Amtrak train was one of six passengers killed Tuesday night. (Photo: Mel Evans/AP)

Emergency personnel gather Wednesday in North Philadelphia at the scene of a deadly train derailment. A midshipman aboard the New York-bound Amtrak train was one of six passengers killed Tuesday night. (Photo: Mel Evans/AP)

A Naval Academy midshipman was one of the six passengers killed in Tuesday night’s Amtrak crash in north Philadelphia, the school announced Wednesday.

Justin Zemser (pictured with his mother, Susan) and Jim Gaines were among the seven people killed when a New York-bound Amtrak train derailed in Philadelphia.

Justin Zemser (pictured with his mother, Susan) and Jim Gaines were among the seven people killed when a New York-bound Amtrak train derailed in Philadelphia.

In a speech Wednesday at Annapolis, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus identified him as Midshipman 3rd Class Justin Zemser.

“I know that the brigade and the Navy family is struggling with this, and our thoughts go out to the brigade, family brigade for losing such a crucial member of this institution,” Mabus told the audience of midshipmen.

Midshipman 3rd Class Justin Zemser

Midshipman 3rd Class Justin Zemser

Zemser was on leave and was headed home at the time of the crash. Zemser, a sophomore, was from Rockaway Beach, N.Y. and played sprint football, according to his Navy sports bio.

Thoughts and prayers for the victims as well as their family and friends.

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