#WarriorWednesday: 23 Sep 1779 – John Paul Jones, Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis

Captain John Paul Jones hailing HMS Serapis during the action from the deck of the frigate Bonhomme Richard, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Paul Moran. During the action, all firing ceased and for several moments Captain Pearson of the Serapis called out, "Have you struck your colors?" "I have not yet begun to fight," replied Captain Jones, were upon the firing resumed. Serapis later struck her colors.

Captain John Paul Jones hailing HMS Serapis during the action from the deck of the frigate Bonhomme Richard, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Paul Moran. During the action, all firing ceased and for several moments Captain Pearson of the Serapis called out, “Have you struck your colors?” “I have not yet begun to fight,” replied Captain Jones, were upon the firing resumed. Serapis later struck her colors.

“I Have Not Yet Begun to Fight,” John Paul Jones, making his legendary battle cry from the deck of Bonhomme Richard, during her action with HMS Serapis, Sept., 23 1779.

On Sept. 23, 1779, the frigate, Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones, engages HMS Serapis, commanded by Capt. Richard Pearson off Flamborough Head, England. With Bonhomme Richard being nearly destroyed by enemy fire, Pearson calls for surrender, which Jones replies, “I have not yet begun to fight!” Emerging victorious, Jones captures and takes over Serapis, while Bonhomme Richard sinks into the sea.

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Artwork of Anton O. Fischer.

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Artwork of Anton O. Fischer.

USS Bonhomme Richard engages HMS Serapis off Flamborough Head, England, 23 September 1779. Bookplate from a painting by Charles R. Patterson, 1929.

USS Bonhomme Richard engages HMS Serapis off Flamborough Head, England, 23 September 1779. Bookplate from a painting by Charles R. Patterson, 1929.

“I Have Not Yet Begun to Fight.” Detail of a shadow box exhibit at the U.S. Naval Academy showing John Paul Jones making his legendary battle cry from the deck of Bonhomme Richard, during her action with HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. The diorama was photographed in December 1953 by Taggart.

“I Have Not Yet Begun to Fight.” Detail of a shadow box exhibit at the U.S. Naval Academy showing John Paul Jones making his legendary battle cry from the deck of Bonhomme Richard, during her action with HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. The diorama was photographed in December 1953 by Taggart.

Captain John Paul Jones after an A.L. Stephens engraving of his boarding HMS Serapis.

Captain John Paul Jones after an A.L. Stephens engraving of his boarding HMS Serapis.

Captain Richard Pearson, Royal Navy. Captain Pearson commanded HMS Serapis when she was captured by John Paul Jones in 1779. Engraving by W. R. Cook, published in the “Naval Chronicle,” Vol. 24, London, November 1810. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 68672. For his spirited battle against John Paul Jones, Pearson was considered a hero. He was knighted, received presents from the merchants and the freedoms of several towns.

Captain Richard Pearson, Royal Navy. Captain Pearson commanded HMS Serapis when she was captured by John Paul Jones in 1779. Engraving by W. R. Cook, published in the “Naval Chronicle,” Vol. 24, London, November 1810. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 68672.
For his spirited battle against John Paul Jones, Pearson was considered a hero. He was knighted, received presents from the merchants and the freedoms of several towns.

Bonhomme Richard vs Serapis, 23 September 1779. Engraved view of the action probably from the 19th century. US Marine Corps photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives:

Bonhomme Richard vs Serapis, 23 September 1779. Engraved view of the action probably from the 19th century. US Marine Corps photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives:

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Watercolor by Edward Tufnall. Courtesy of Mrs. Leslie R. Groves.

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Watercolor by Edward Tufnall. Courtesy of Mrs. Leslie R. Groves.

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Warren. Courtesy of the Mariner’s Museum. Bailey Collection #232.

Bonhomme Richard vs HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Warren. Courtesy of the Mariner’s Museum. Bailey Collection #232.

Frigate Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, engraving of the action off Flamborough Head, published by John Harris, London, 1 December 1871. It is after the painting by Robert Dodd, and is dedicated by the pubisher to the "Merchants Trading to Russia." Courtesy of the Beverly R. Robinson Collection at the U.S. Naval Institute.

Frigate Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, engraving of the action off Flamborough Head, published by John Harris, London, 1 December 1871. It is after the painting by Robert Dodd, and is dedicated by the pubisher to the “Merchants Trading to Russia.” Courtesy of the Beverly R. Robinson Collection at the U.S. Naval Institute.

Captain John Paul Jones capturing HMS Serapis. This battle occurred off Flamborough Head, England. An original line engraving after a painting by Chappel, published in “Battles of the U.S. by Sea and Land,” by Henry B. Watson, 1859. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 56483.

Captain John Paul Jones capturing HMS Serapis. This battle occurred off Flamborough Head, England. An original line engraving after a painting by Chappel, published in “Battles of the U.S. by Sea and Land,” by Henry B. Watson, 1859. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 56483.

Frigate Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, action off Flamborough Head, England, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Carlton T. Champan. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

Frigate Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, action off Flamborough Head, England, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Carlton T. Champan. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

Continental Frigate Bonhomme Richard engaging HMS Serapis, off Flamborough Head, on 23 September 1779. Engraving by R. Collier after Hamilton. Published circa 1780. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 58940. Note: Just what does “Bonhomme Richard” mean?  Bonhomme Richard -- A French translation of Benjamin Franklin's nom de plume, "Poor Richard." When John Paul Jones received the Duc de Duras from the King of France, Louis XVI, he renamed the former French East Indiaman Bonhomme Richard to honor Franklin, the American Commissioner at Paris whose famous almanacs had been published in France under the title Les Maximes du Bonhomme Richard.

Continental Frigate Bonhomme Richard engaging HMS Serapis, off Flamborough Head, on 23 September 1779. Engraving by R. Collier after Hamilton. Published circa 1780. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 58940.
Note: Just what does “Bonhomme Richard” mean?
Bonhomme Richard — A French translation of Benjamin Franklin’s nom de plume, “Poor Richard.” When John Paul Jones received the Duc de Duras from the King of France, Louis XVI, he renamed the former French East Indiaman Bonhomme Richard to honor Franklin, the American Commissioner at Paris whose famous almanacs had been published in France under the title Les Maximes du Bonhomme Richard.

The memorable engagement of Captain Pearson of the Serapis with Paul Jones of the Bonhomme Richard and his squadron, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Thomas Buttersworth. Painting is in the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

The memorable engagement of Captain Pearson of the Serapis with Paul Jones of the Bonhomme Richard and his squadron, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Thomas Buttersworth. Painting is in the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

The Action between HMS Serapis, Captain Pearson, the Countess of Scarborough, and John Paul Jones’ squaderon, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Richard Paton. Painting is in the collection of the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

The Action between HMS Serapis, Captain Pearson, the Countess of Scarborough, and John Paul Jones’ squaderon, 23 September 1779. Artwork by Richard Paton. Painting is in the collection of the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

The action between HMS Serapis, commanded by Captain Pearson and the Continental frigate Bonhomme Richard, commanded by Captain John Paul Jones. Artwork by Lieutenant William Elliott, Royal Navy, signed and dated by artist, 1789. Painting is in the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

The action between HMS Serapis, commanded by Captain Pearson and the Continental frigate Bonhomme Richard, commanded by Captain John Paul Jones. Artwork by Lieutenant William Elliott, Royal Navy, signed and dated by artist, 1789. Painting is in the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

USS Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. This action occurred off Flamborough Head, England. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

USS Bonhomme Richard vs. HMS Serapis, 23 September 1779. This action occurred off Flamborough Head, England. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

John Paul Jones bidding goodbye to his victorious ship. Artwork by Percy Moran. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

John Paul Jones bidding goodbye to his victorious ship. Artwork by Percy Moran. Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection

USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31). Slides down the building ways, as she is launched at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, on 29 April 1944. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-3888(Color). Notes: USS Yorktown (CV-10) was originally intended to be named Bonhomme Richard, but after USS Yorktown (CV-5) was sunk during the Battle of Midway, the new carrier gained Yorktown’s name. Bon Homme Richard (CV-31) is considered the second ship of the name despite the difference in spelling, an error which may have crept in as early as the 1860s when the name was assigned to the steam frigate that was never built and which later was compounded, no doubt, by the haste with which an enormous number of ships had to be named during World War II.

USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31). Slides down the building ways, as she is launched at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, on 29 April 1944. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-3888(Color).
Notes: USS Yorktown (CV-10) was originally intended to be named Bonhomme Richard, but after USS Yorktown (CV-5) was sunk during the Battle of Midway, the new carrier gained Yorktown’s name.
Bon Homme Richard (CV-31) is considered the second ship of the name despite the difference in spelling, an error which may have crept in as early as the 1860s when the name was assigned to the steam frigate that was never built and which later was compounded, no doubt, by the haste with which an enormous number of ships had to be named during World War II.

USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) returns to Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, after participating in Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercises July 31, 2010. RIMPAC is a biennial, multinational exercise to strengthen regional partnerships and improve multinational interoperability.

USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) returns to Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, after participating in Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercises July 31, 2010. RIMPAC is a biennial, multinational exercise to strengthen regional partnerships and improve multinational interoperability.

On the Web: 

Read more about John Paul Jones

Read and see more about USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31)

The Naval History and Heritage Command Underwater Archeology Team has just returned for the search of Bonhomme Richard, please click here for their blog on the expedition.

Read more about the Continental frigate Bonhomme Richard

Read John Paul Jones chronology of service

Read more about Captain Richard Pearson via the British National Maritime Museum

National Park Service website about John Paul Jones

Crash

Advertisements

#MilitaryMonday: June 1864 – USS Kearsarge Sinks CSS Alabama

Photo: Capt. Raphael Semmes, CSS Alabama's commanding officer, stands by his ship's 110-pounder rifled gun during her visit to Capetown in August 1863. His executive officer, 1st Lt. John M. Kell, is in the background, standing by the ship's wheel. Collection of Rear Admiral Ammen C. Farenholt, USN(MC), 1931. NHHC Photo Archives.

Photo: Capt. Raphael Semmes, CSS Alabama’s commanding officer, stands by his ship’s 110-pounder rifled gun during her visit to Capetown in August 1863. His executive officer, 1st Lt. John M. Kell, is in the background, standing by the ship’s wheel. Collection of Rear Admiral Ammen C. Farenholt, USN(MC), 1931. NHHC Photo Archives.

On June 19, 1864, during the Civil War, USS Kearsarge, commanded by Capt. J.A. Winslow, sinks CSS Alabama, commanded by Capt. R. Semmes, off Cherbourg, France, ending the South’s most famous commerce raider. During her career, Alabama captures and burns 55 vessels valued at $4.5 million and bonds 10 others for more than half a million dollars. After Capt. Semmes is rescued by the British private yacht Deerhound, it causes an international dispute between the United States and Great Britain.

"Hauling Down the Flag -- Surrender of the Alabama to the Kearsarge off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864" Artwork by J.O. Davidson, depicting the sinking of CSS Alabama, as seen from USS Kearsarge. The crew of one of Kearsarge's eleven-inch Dahlgren pivot guns is celebrating their victory. Collection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1936. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 1261.

“Hauling Down the Flag — Surrender of the Alabama to the Kearsarge off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864” Artwork by J.O. Davidson, depicting the sinking of CSS Alabama, as seen from USS Kearsarge. The crew of one of Kearsarge’s eleven-inch Dahlgren pivot guns is celebrating their victory. Collection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1936. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 1261.

USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama, 19 June 1864. Painting by Xanthus Smith, 1922, depicting Alabama sinking, at left, after her fight with the Kearsarge (seen at right). Courtesy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. National Archives photograph, K-29827 (Color).

USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama, 19 June 1864. Painting by Xanthus Smith, 1922, depicting Alabama sinking, at left, after her fight with the Kearsarge (seen at right). Courtesy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York. Official U.S. Navy Photograph. National Archives photograph, K-29827 (Color).

"Battle of the 'Kearsarge' and 'Alabama' off Cherbourg, France, June 19, 1864." Line engraving after a sketch by Frank Beard, published in "Pictorial Battles of the Civil War", page 366, depicting the sinking of CSS Alabama, with USS Kearsarge in the right distance. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 46958.

“Battle of the ‘Kearsarge’ and ‘Alabama’ off Cherbourg, France, June 19, 1864.” Line engraving after a sketch by Frank Beard, published in “Pictorial Battles of the Civil War”, page 366, depicting the sinking of CSS Alabama, with USS Kearsarge in the right distance. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 46958.

"Last of the Alabama" "Commodore Winslows Grand Victory March" Lithographed cover of Civil War era sheet music, published by J. Mensh, Philadelphia. Courtesy of Lester S. Levy. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 50453-KN (Color).

“Last of the Alabama” “Commodore Winslows Grand Victory March” Lithographed cover of Civil War era sheet music, published by J. Mensh, Philadelphia.
Courtesy of Lester S. Levy. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 50453-KN (Color).

National Museum of the U.S. Navy, Building 76, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. View in the Civil War exhibit area, March 1980, showing the sternpost of USS Kearsarge with an unexploded shell from CSS Alabama embedded in it, a relic of the 19 June 1864 battle between those two ships. Other artificts visible include the Historical Data Plaque of USS Cushing (DD-797), immediately to the right of the Kearsarge sternpost. Photographed by PH3c F. Brownson. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 96016.

National Museum of the U.S. Navy, Building 76, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. View in the Civil War exhibit area, March 1980, showing the sternpost of USS Kearsarge with an unexploded shell from CSS Alabama embedded in it, a relic of the 19 June 1864 battle between those two ships. Other artificts visible include the Historical Data Plaque of USS Cushing (DD-797), immediately to the right of the Kearsarge sternpost. Photographed by PH3c F. Brownson.
NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 96016.

Seaman Joachim Pease. U.S. Navy poster photographed in 1970. Joachim Pease received the Medal of Honor for his conduct while loader of the No.2 Gun on USS Kearsarge as she battled CSS Alabama off Cherbourg, France on 19 June 1864. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from NHHC, NH 103763.

Seaman Joachim Pease. U.S. Navy poster photographed in 1970. Joachim Pease received the Medal of Honor for his conduct while loader of the No.2 Gun on USS Kearsarge as she battled CSS Alabama off Cherbourg, France on 19 June 1864. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from NHHC, NH 103763.

On the Web: Recovered CSS Alabama artifacts

Beautiful and dangerous, CSS Alabama ruled the sea

Crash

 

#WarriorWednesday: Admiral of the Navy George Dewey

“You may fire when you are ready Gridley.” 

– U.S. Navy Commodore George Dewey, instructed the commanding officer of his flagship,USS Olympia, at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War, 1898

Today marks 116 years since Spain’s declaration of war against the United States. Congress in turn declared war on Spain two days later, but as the Navy had already blockaded Cuba, backdated the declaration to the 21st.

By the time war was declared on the 25th, the U.S. Navy had pretty much secured the western hemisphere, and prepared to confront the Spanish Navy in the Pacific. Just over 9,000 miles on the other side of the globe in Hong Kong, a man who had distinguished himself during the Civil War, was doing just that.

Commodore George Dewey

Commodore George Dewey

In fact, Commodore George Dewey had been prepping his fleet since February, so when war was declared, he made a beeline for the Spanish Navy at Manila Bay in the Philippines. Who was this man who would lead the U.S. Navy to its first major, strategic victories overseas? Known for his quick temper, Dewey had no problem making quick decisions. Nothing went unobserved from his wicker chair on the quarterdeck of his flagship, USS Olympia. From his “throne” many noted his legendary walrus mustache, the crisp white uniform standard for officers then, and his dog named “Bob.” He had no patience for lengthy meetings and even stormed out of one with Army Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis, who would become the 2nd Military Governor of the Philippines.

gd2

On May 1, 1898, he delivered to America the first Navy victory against a foreign enemy since the War of 1812 – the Battle of Manila in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War. In recognition of his exemplary leadership, on March 2, 1899, Congress handed President McKinley the act that made Dewey the first and last Admiral of the Navy, a rank never before held by any officer. When Dewey died on Jan. 16, 1917, the Secretary of the Navy noted in General Order No. 258, “Vermont was his mother State and there was always in his character something of the granite of his native hills.”

The Making of An Officer
Dewey graduated in 1858 from the U.S. Naval Academy. Less than three years later he found himself at the center of the action in the Civil War while serving under Admiral Farragut during the Battle of New Orleans. On April 24, 1862, Dewey, executive lieutenant of the steam paddle ship USS Mississippi, skillfully navigated shallow waters to wage a successful attack against Confederate fortifications at New Orleans. Because Dewey had survived and battled sharpshooters, Farragut later asked him by name to command his personal dispatch gun boat, USS Agawam, which was frequently attacked by Confederate snipers.

Later, in 1864, Lt. Dewey was made executive officer of the wooden man-of-war USS Colorado stationed on the North Atlantic blockading squadron under Commodore Henry Knox Thatcher. Dewey again rose to the occasion during the Battles of Fort Fisher. Even The New York Times spoke admiringly of the Union victory as “the most beautiful duel of the war.” Commodore Thatcher wouldn’t take the credit and remarked to his superiors, “You must thank Lieutenant Dewey, sir. It was his move.”

An Act of Congress on 2 March 1899, created the rank of Admiral of the Navy. On 24 March 1903, Admiral George Dewey, who held the rank of Admiral since 8 March 1899, was commissioned Admiral of the Navy, with date of rank 2 March 1899, and became the only officer of the United States Navy who was ever so commissioned. This painting shows then-Commodore Dewey on board USS Olympia, in command of the great American victory at Manila Bay in 1898, during the Spanish-American War. NHHC image NH 84510-KN.

An Act of Congress on 2 March 1899, created the rank of Admiral of the Navy. On 24 March 1903, Admiral George Dewey, who held the rank of Admiral since 8 March 1899, was commissioned Admiral of the Navy, with date of rank 2 March 1899, and became the only officer of the United States Navy who was ever so commissioned.
This painting shows then-Commodore Dewey on board USS Olympia, in command of the great American victory at Manila Bay in 1898, during the Spanish-American War. NHHC image NH 84510-KN.

After the war, he returned to the Naval Academy as an instructor and was then later granted rest ashore status in Washington, D.C. He found the assignment listless and believed the environment in D.C. was “harmful to his health.” He could not resist the call of the sea.

Over the course of the next thirty years, he commanded USS Narragansett, USS Supply, USS Juniata, USS Dolphin, and USS Pensacola. He also served as a Lighthouse Inspector, a member of the Lighthouse Board, and Secretary of the Lighthouse Board. Additionally he served as the Chief of the Bureau of Equipment as President of the Board of Inspection and Survey. On Nov. 30, 1897, he was ordered to Asiatic Station and, proceeding by steamer, he assumed command on Jan. 3, 1898, his flag in the protected cruiser, USS Olympia, Captain Charles V. Gridley, commanding.

gd4

Victory for the United States
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt had urged him to prepare for the possibility of war with Spain and telegraphed him on Feb. 25, 1898, just ten days after USS Maine mysteriously blew up in Cuba, to immediately prepare the Asiatic Station at Hong Kong. Less than a week after the declaration of war, on May 1, 1898, Dewey sunk or captured the entire Spanish Pacific fleet in a battle lasting just over six hours (including a three-hour lunch break). In that short amount of time, he also defeated the shore batteries. The Battle of Manila Bay was one of the Navy’s greatest success stories against an imperial European empire.

On May 10, 1898, Dewey was given a vote of thanks by the U.S. Congress and was commissioned Rear Adm. That promotion was an advancement of one grade for “highly distinguished conduct in conflict with the enemy as displayed by him in the destruction of the Spanish Fleet and batteries in the harbor of Manila, Philippine Islands, May 1, 1898.”

After defeating the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay, Dewey met with the Army to work out the preliminaries for the occupation of the Philippines. Most of the meetings went well, except on one occasion, Dewey practically leapt to stand and bolted back to his barge, Cristina, to board USS Olympia. He found meetings detestable, and his frustration grew with the Army’s decisions on how to govern the Philippines. Dewey later let the Army know his personal opinion of its style of management, especially with the Army’s barges that policed the Passig River. In no subtle form or fashion, Dewey delivered tirades complaining to the Army on the condition of the barges being far from “ship shape and Bristol fashion,” and went as far as to issue a direct order to General Otis warning if any of them were seen outside of the river and in open water in Manila Bay, the Navy would sink them. The barges never appeared outside of the confines of the river.

gd5

On Jan. 17, 1917 President Woodrow Wilson delivering Dewey’s eulogy, offered an apt description of Adm. Dewey’s personality and legacy: “It is pleasant to recall what qualities gave him his well-deserved fame: His practical directness, his courage without self-consciousness, his efficient capacity in matters of administration, the readiness to fight without asking questions or hesitating about any detail. It was by such qualities that he continued and added luster to the best traditions of the Navy. He had the stuff in him which all true men admire and upon which all statesmen must depend in hours of peril. The people and the Government of the United States will always rejoice to perpetuate his name in all honor and affection.”

On the Web: 

George Dewey – Spanish American War

Biography – Admiral of the Navy George Dewey, USN

George Dewey – Library of Congress

Commodore George Dewey Was Born – America’s Library

Crash

#RedFriday: USS Kearsarge (CV-33, later CVA-33 and CVS-33), 1946-1974

USS Kearsarge (CV-33) In a harbor during the later 1940s, with her crew paraded on the flight deck for inspection. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

USS Kearsarge (CV-33)
In a harbor during the later 1940s, with her crew paraded on the flight deck for inspection.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

Red Friday honors and stands behind the members of the United States Military and wishes for their safe return home.

In October 1958, the USS Kearsarge took on a new assignment as a support aircraft carrier CVS 33.

The USS Kearsarge, a 27,100-ton Ticonderoga class aircraft carrier, was built at the New York Navy Yard. She was commissioned in March 1946 and spent her first year of service in training operations in the western Atlantic and Caribbean. During the later 1940s, Kearsarge made two trips to Europe, the first a summer 1947 midshipmen training cruise and the second a mid-1948 deployment to the Mediterranean Sea. In early 1950, the carrier was transferred to the west coast, where she decommissioned in June for extensive modernization work.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33) With two AJ "Savage" heavy attack aircraft on her flight deck, following her SCB-27A modernization, circa 1952-55. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33)
With two AJ “Savage” heavy attack aircraft on her flight deck, following her SCB-27A modernization, circa 1952-55.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

Recommissioned in February 1952, Kearsarge now had a stronger flight deck, new island and many other changes to her appearance and capabilities. She made a Korean War combat cruise in September 1952 – February 1953, during which time she was reclassified as an attack aircraft carrier and redesignated CVA-33.

Two A-4C "Skyhawk" aircraft, of Attack Squadron 146 (VA-146) Fly past USS Kearsarge (CVS-33), 12 August 1964. These planes, from USS Constellation (CVA-64), are Bureau #s 149551 and 149570. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Two A-4C “Skyhawk” aircraft,
of Attack Squadron 146 (VA-146)
Fly past USS Kearsarge (CVS-33), 12 August 1964.
These planes, from USS Constellation (CVA-64), are Bureau #s 149551 and 149570.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

From mid-1953 to 1958,Kearsarge had regular tours of duty with the Seventh Fleet in the Far East. Her 1955 deployment included supporting the Nationalist Chinese evacuation of the Tachen Islands. The carrier was again modernized in 1956-57, receiving an angled flight deck and enclosed “hurricane” bow to better equip her to operate high-performance aircraft.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) At sea, 12 December 1965. She has nine A-4 attack jets on her flight deck, as well as one S-2 anti-submarine plane. Photographed by PH3 Michael D. Stearns. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33)
At sea, 12 December 1965. She has nine A-4 attack jets on her flight deck, as well as one S-2 anti-submarine plane.
Photographed by PH3 Michael D. Stearns.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Kearsarge was assigned a new role in October 1958, becoming an antisubmarine warfare (ASW) support aircraft carrier, with the new designation CVS-33. In that capacity, she operated ASW fixed-wing airplanes and helicopters to protect the fleet against the threat of hostile underwater attack.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) Underway in Hawaiian waters, 5 July 1966, with S-2 and E-1B airplanes and SH-3 helicopters on her flight deck. Photographed by Ph1(AC) R. Sheffield. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33)
Underway in Hawaiian waters, 5 July 1966, with S-2 and E-1B airplanes and SH-3 helicopters on her flight deck.
Photographed by Ph1(AC) R. Sheffield.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Regular Seventh Fleet deployments continued through the late 1950s and the 1960s, including indirect involvement in the Vietnam Conflict. In 1962 and 1963, Kearsarge carried out a new mission, serving as recovery ship for the orbital flights of astronauts Walter Schirra and Gordon Cooper. Made redundant by the general fleet drawdown of the late 1960s and early 1970s, USS Kearsarge was decommissioned in February 1970. Following three years in the Reserve Fleet, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register in May 1973 and sold for scrapping in February 1974.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) Underway in the Pacific Ocean, 5 December 1968. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Kearsarge (CVS-33)
Underway in the Pacific Ocean, 5 December 1968.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Kearsarge (CV-33) Sikorski HO3S-1 helicopter in flight over the carrier's flight deck, during Operation "Frigid", November 1948. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Kearsarge (CV-33)
Sikorski HO3S-1 helicopter in flight over the carrier’s flight deck, during Operation “Frigid”, November 1948.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33) Crewmen cleaning mess trays at the mess decks dumpster station, circa the late 1950s. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33)
Crewmen cleaning mess trays at the mess decks dumpster station, circa the late 1950s.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

"Sigma 7" Project "Mercury" Space Capsule Is towed toward USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) for pickup, after its orbital flight with astronaut (Commander, USN) Walter Schirra on board, 16 October 1962. Note rescue swimmer on the capsule's flotation collar, and a Kearsarge 26-foot motor whaleboat standing by. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

“Sigma 7” Project “Mercury” Space Capsule
Is towed toward USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) for pickup, after its orbital flight with astronaut (Commander, USN) Walter Schirra on board, 16 October 1962.
Note rescue swimmer on the capsule’s flotation collar, and a Kearsarge 26-foot motor whaleboat standing by.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

Sikorski SH-3A "Sea King" helicopters, of Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Six (HS-6) Lift off from the flight deck of USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) as she enters Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 27 June 1967. The USS Arizona Memorial is in the distance. Helicopter at left is Bureau # 152124. Photographed by PH3 B.L. Kleckner. Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

Sikorski SH-3A “Sea King” helicopters,
of Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Six (HS-6)
Lift off from the flight deck of USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) as she enters Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 27 June 1967. The USS Arizona Memorial is in the distance.
Helicopter at left is Bureau # 152124.
Photographed by PH3 B.L. Kleckner.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33) Decommissioning party salutes the colors, as Kearsarge goes out of commission for the last time, at Long Beach, California, 13 February 1970. Those present are (from left to right): Captain Frederick W. Zigler, USN, Commanding Officer, Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility; Rear Admiral Norman C. Gillette, USN, Commander Anti-Submarine Warfare Group Three; Rear Admiral William T. Rassieur, USN(Retired), former Commanding Officer of the ship; Captain Leonard M. Nearman, USN, ship's Commanding Officer; and Mr. C.E. (Gene) Gallman, representing the Mayor of Long Beach. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

USS Kearsarge (CVA-33)
Decommissioning party salutes the colors, as Kearsarge goes out of commission for the last time, at Long Beach, California, 13 February 1970.
Those present are (from left to right):
Captain Frederick W. Zigler, USN, Commanding Officer, Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility;
Rear Admiral Norman C. Gillette, USN, Commander Anti-Submarine Warfare Group Three;
Rear Admiral William T. Rassieur, USN(Retired), former Commanding Officer of the ship;
Captain Leonard M. Nearman, USN, ship’s Commanding Officer; and
Mr. C.E. (Gene) Gallman, representing the Mayor of Long Beach.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

RedFriday graphic Crash

#ThrowbackThursday: USS North Carolina (BB 55) Commissioned

USS North Carolina (BB 55), as seen on the deck of the battleship during commissioning ceremonies, 9 April 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR& L File, Ships

USS North Carolina (BB 55), as seen on the deck of the battleship during commissioning ceremonies, 9 April 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR& L File, Ships

On April 9, 1941, USS North Carolina (BB-55) was commissioned. Some of the notable battles she participated in were the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of Philippine Sea, and provided gunfire support during the Iwo Jima invasion. Decommissioned in 1947, North Carolina was part of the reserve fleet until becoming a museum ship in 1961 at Wilmington, North Carolina.

NC12

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Photographed during her shakedown cruise, May 1941. The battleship is framed by an escorting destroyer’s deck, 5″/38 gun barrel and a crewman. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-13972(Color).

NC11

USS North Carolina (BB-55). View looking aft from the battleship’s bow, showing her forward superstructure and 16″/45 guns. Photographed during her maiden voyage, circa May 1941. Note Measure 1 camouflage paint, CXAM-1 radar antenna, anchor chains and deck planking. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-13971 (Color)

NC10

USS North Carolina (BB-55). At sea during her shakedown cruise, circa April-May 1941. Note what appears to be false-bow-wave camouflage forward, possibly the result of wave action on her new paint. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Maher Collection. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph, NH 83074.

NC9

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Pitching in heavy seas while screening Task Force 38.3 off the Philippines, 12 December 1944. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-301356.

NC8

USS North Carolina (BB 55), (left to right), Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox; Rear Admiral Adolphus Andrews; Governor J. M. Broughton of North Carolina and Admiral Harold B. Stark. Barely visible in the left background is Mayor F.E. Laguardia of New York. Photographed at the Brooklyn Navy Yard during commissioning ceremonies for the battleship, 9 April 1941. . NHHC Photograph Collection, NR& L File, Ships.

NC7

USS North Carolina (BB 55), as seen on the deck of the battleship during commissioning ceremonies, 9 April 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR& L File, Ships

NC6

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Fires her after 16″/45 guns in June 1941, during her shakedown cruise. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-13511 (Color).

NC5

USS North Carolina (BB 55), as seen on the deck of the battleship during commissioning ceremonies, 9 April 1941. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR& L File, Ships

NC4

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Underway at sea during the Gilberts Operation, circa November 1943. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-101 (Color).

NC3

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Philatelic cover from commissioning day. Photographed by Museum Technician Mr. Bill Hill. NHHC Curator Branch, Materials. Accession# 65-380-H.

NC2

USS North Carolina (BB-55). Anchored off the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Washington, 24 September 1944. She is painted in what may be a variant of Camouflage Measure 32, Design 18D. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 104850.

On the Web: More about the USS North Carolina

Crash

 

Military Monday – Retro Photos: “Cradle of Naval Aviation” is 100 Years Old

Naval Air Station Pensacola’s most famous tenant command is the Navy’s flight demonstration squadron, the U.S. Navy Blue Angelsls. The Blues fly at airshows all over the world demonstrating their aerial superiority while promoting naval aviation for millions of people with their precision maneuvers.

Naval Air Station Pensacola’s most famous tenant command is the Navy’s flight demonstration squadron, the U.S. Navy Blue Angelsls. The Blues fly at airshows all over the world demonstrating their aerial superiority while promoting naval aviation for millions of people with their precision maneuvers.

Happy 100th Anniversary, NAS Pensacola!

On January 20, 1914, the aviation unit from Annapolis, Maryland, under Lieutenant John H. Towers, as Officer in Charge, arrived at Pensacola, Florida on board USS Mississippi (BB 23) and USS Orion (AC 11) to set up a flying school. Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Mustin commanded Mississippi and was in command of the aeronautic station.

Pensacola, Florida. Saturday morning inspection of machines on the beach at Pensacola, Florida, 27 January 1917. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR&L file, Places.

Pensacola, Florida. Saturday morning inspection of machines on the beach at Pensacola, Florida, 27 January 1917. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR&L file, Places.

The United States Navy’s official interest in airplanes emerged as early as 1898. That year the Navy assigned officers to sit on an interservice board investigating the military possibilities of Samuel P. Langley’s flying machine. In subsequent years there were naval observers at air meets here and abroad and at the public demonstrations staged by Orville and Wilbur Wright in 1908 and 1909. All were enthusiastic about the potential of the airplane as a fleet scout. By 1909, naval officers, including a bureau chief, were urging the purchase of aircraft.

Pensacola, Florida. View taken 1915-16, shows the Naval Air Station. Note hangars at left; USS North Carolina (CA 12) in lower center view. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Dichmann Collection. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83913.

Pensacola, Florida. View taken 1915-16, shows the Naval Air Station. Note hangars at left; USS North Carolina (CA 12) in lower center view. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Dichmann Collection. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83913.

It was in 1910 that a place was made for aviation in the organizational structure of the Navy. That was the year Captain Washington I. Chambers was designated as the officer to whom all aviation matters were to be referred. Although holding no special title, he pulled together existing threads of aviation interest within the Navy and gave official recognition to the proposals of inventors and builders. Before the Navy had either planes or pilots he arranged a series of tests in which Glenn Curtiss and Eugene Ely dramatized the airplane’s capability for shipboard operations and showed the world and a skeptical Navy that aviation could go to sea.

USS Mississippi (Battleship # 23). Fitting out at the Cramp shipyard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1907. Note: Ship's name on stern; hull primed for painting; after 12"/45 gun turret with roof not yet installed. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives, 19-N-8-18-14.

USS Mississippi (Battleship # 23). Fitting out at the Cramp shipyard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1907. Note: Ship’s name on stern; hull primed for painting; after 12″/45 gun turret with roof not yet installed. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives, 19-N-8-18-14.

Early in 1911 the first naval officer reported for flight training. By mid-year, the first money had been appropriated, the first aircraft had been purchased, the first pilot had qualified, and the site of the first aviation camp had been selected. The idea of a seagoing aviation force was beginning to take form as plans and enthusiasms were transformed into realities. By the end of the year a humble beginning had been made.

Commissioned Officers of the Aviation Corps, at the Naval Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Florida, March 1914. Present are (left to right): Lieutenant V. D. Herbster, Lieutenant W.M. McIlvain, USMC; Lieutenant Junior Grade P.N.L. Bellinger, Lieutenant Junior Grade R. C. Saufley, Lieutenant J.H. Towers, Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenant B.L. Smith, USMC, Ensign G. DeC. Chavlier, and Ensign M.L. Stolz. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Collection of Captain H.C. Richardson. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95633.

Commissioned Officers of the Aviation Corps, at the Naval Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Florida, March 1914. Present are (left to right): Lieutenant V. D. Herbster, Lieutenant W.M. McIlvain, USMC; Lieutenant Junior Grade P.N.L. Bellinger, Lieutenant Junior Grade R. C. Saufley, Lieutenant J.H. Towers, Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieutenant B.L. Smith, USMC, Ensign G. DeC. Chavlier, and Ensign M.L. Stolz. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Collection of Captain H.C. Richardson. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95633.

The need for more science and less rule of thumb was apparent to Captain Chambers. He collected the writings and scientific papers of leaders in the new field, pushed for a national aerodynamics laboratory, and encouraged naval constructors to work on aerodynamic and hydrodynamic problems.

This photograph showing seaplanes on the beach was taken in March 1914. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR&L Files.

This photograph showing seaplanes on the beach was taken in March 1914. NHHC Photograph Collection, NR&L Files.

The Navy built a wind tunnel, and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was established. The first real study of what was needed in aviation was conducted by a board under Chambers’ leadership and included in its recommendations the establishment of a ground and flight training center at Pensacola, Fla., the expansion of research, and the assignment of an airplane to every major combatant ship of the Navy.

Pensacola, Florida. View of the Aviation Station, circa 1915-1916. Note USS North Carolina (CA 12) at lower right; aviation hangers at the middle right; destroyers at the dock, center. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Dichmann Collection. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83912.

Pensacola, Florida. View of the Aviation Station, circa 1915-1916. Note USS North Carolina (CA 12) at lower right; aviation hangers at the middle right; destroyers at the dock, center. Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, Dichmann Collection. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83912.

Progress in these early years was marked by an endurance record of six hours in the air; the first successful catapult launch of an airplane from a ship; exercises with the Fleet during winter maneuvers at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; and combat sorties at Veracruz, Mexico.

Canvas tent hangars line the shore at the Pensacola Navy Yard after the arrival of the first naval aviators to establish an aeronautic station there.

Canvas tent hangars line the shore at the Pensacola Navy Yard after the arrival of the first naval aviators to establish an aeronautic station there.

These were but some of the accomplishments by pioneer pilots. Their activity furthered the importance of aviation to the Navy. In 1914, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels announced that the point had been reached “where aircraft must form a large part of our naval forces for offensive and defensive operations.”

Crash

Military Monday – Retro Photos: US Navy Activity in WWII Pacific

Jan. 12, 1945: Task Force 38 aircraft target Japanese vessels

USS Hornet (CV-12)

USS Hornet (CV-12)

ABOVE: USS Hornet (CV-12). View looking aft from the ship’s island as she steams with other carriers during a western Pacific gunnery practice session, circa June 1945. Next ship astern is USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31), firing her 5″/38 battery to starboard. Two small aircraft carriers (CVL) are beyond her. Note yellow flight deck markings on Hornet and TBM and SB2C aircraft parked aft. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-5702 (Color).

Also on 12 January 1945, near Cam Ranh Bay, submarine chaser Ch 43 and auxiliary minesweeper Otowa Maru are sunk; submarine chaser Ch 34 and freighter Ryuyo Maru are damaged. Near Saigon, landing ship T.140 and stores ship Ikutagawa Maru, army cargo ships Kiyo Maru and No.17 Shinsei Maru, freighters Kenei Maru and Taikyu Maru, along with tanker No.9 Horai Maru are sunk.

TF38s

TF38s

ABOVE: TBF Avenger aircraft of Air Group 4, USS Essex (CV-9) Task Group 38.3, leaving the coast of French Indo-China as they return to their carrier after strikes on the Saigon area, 12 January 1945. National Archives photograph, 80-G-300666.

Japanese vessels sunk were:

Antisubmarine sweeping ship (ex-training cruiser) Kashii; escort vessel Chiburi; Coast Defense Vessel No. 17; Coast Defense Vessel No.19; tankers Ayanami Maru, Hoei Maru, Akashi Maru, and Kumagawa Maru; and transport Shinsei Maru.

Coast Defense Vessel No. 23 and Coast Defense Vessel No. 51, transport Kembu Maru, Army cargo ships Yushu Maru and Kyokun Maru, tankers No.2 Nanryu Maru and Shoei Maru, and cargo ships Eiman Maru, Hotsusan Maru, Tatsuhato Maru, Otusasan Maru, Yujo Maru and No. 63 Banshu Maru are damaged. Landing ships T.149 and T.137, fleet tankers San Luis Maru and No.3 Kyoei Maru, escort vessels Daito and Ukuru and Coast Defense Vessel.27 are also damaged.

TF 38 planes also attacked convoy SASI 40. Army cargo ship France Maru, merchant tanker Shingi Maru, and guardboat No.2 Fushimi Maru are sunk off Vung Tau. Convoy SATA 05 came under attack by TF 38 planes below Cape Padaran. Submarine chaser Ch 31, minesweeper W.101, Patrol Boat No.03 (ex-U.S. minesweeper Finch (AM 9), Coast Defense Vessel No.35, Coast Defense Vessel No.43 and the ships they are escorting – tankers Tyahauki Maru, Nagoyoshi Maru, and transport Toyu Maru.

Admiral William F. Halsey, USN, and Vice Admiral John S. McCain, USN, circa January 1945. National Archives photograph, 80-G-165143.

Admiral William F. Halsey, USN, and Vice Admiral John S. McCain, USN, circa January 1945. National Archives photograph, 80-G-165143.

Jan. 12, 1944: US Navy Aircraft activity in the Pacific

Consolidated PBY5 “Catalina” view of Gunner manning waist machine gun, circa 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92491.

Consolidated PBY5 “Catalina” view of Gunner manning waist machine gun, circa 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92491.

Consolidated PB4Y-1 Bomber on patrol in the South Western Pacific area in 1943-44. This plane belonged to bombing squadron 106 (VB-106). Courtesy of Vice Admiral John T. Hayward, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 75355.

Consolidated PB4Y-1 Bomber on patrol in the South Western Pacific area in 1943-44. This plane belonged to bombing squadron 106 (VB-106). Courtesy of Vice Admiral John T. Hayward, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 75355.

Consolidated PBY-5 “Catalina” flying boat of a “Black Cat” night patrol squadron, in flight near the New Guinea Coast, May 1944. National Archives photograph, 80-G-1022359.

Consolidated PBY-5 “Catalina” flying boat of a “Black Cat” night patrol squadron, in flight near the New Guinea Coast, May 1944. National Archives photograph, 80-G-1022359.

Jan. 12, 1943: USS Guardfish sank Japanese Patrol Boat No.1

USS Guardfish (SS 217), ship’s insignia probably dates from WWII. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 67779-KN (Color).

USS Guardfish (SS 217), ship’s insignia probably dates from WWII. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 67779-KN (Color).

USS Guardfish (SS 217), serving as Naval Reserve Training Submarine at New London, Connecticut, circa the 1950s. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1974. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 81356.

USS Guardfish (SS 217), serving as Naval Reserve Training Submarine at New London, Connecticut, circa the 1950s. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1974. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 81356.

USS Guardfish (SS 217), serving as Naval Reserve Training Submarine at New London, Connecticut, circa the 1950s. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1974. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 81356.

USS Guardfish (SS 217), serving as Naval Reserve Training Submarine at New London, Connecticut, circa the 1950s. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1974. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 81356.

Jan. 13, 1943: US Navy Submarine activity in the Pacific

USS Triton (SS 201) photographed from a U.S. Navy blimp, July 1943. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Photographs.

USS Triton (SS 201) photographed from a U.S. Navy blimp, July 1943. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Photographs.

USS Whale (SS 239), photographed on 21 April 1945. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1975. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83206.

USS Whale (SS 239), photographed on 21 April 1945. Courtesy of D.M. McPherson, 1975. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 83206.

USS Triton (SS 201) photographed at Naval Air Station, Dutch Harbor, Alaska, July 1942. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Photographs.

USS Triton (SS 201) photographed at Naval Air Station, Dutch Harbor, Alaska, July 1942. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Photographs.

Jan. 13, 1943: PBY-5A Catalina Aircraft sank German Sub U-507

ARM3 R. H. Moore, USN, mans a .50 cal Machine Gun in a waist blister of a consolidated PBY-5 “Catalina” at Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, 10 March 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92490.

ARM3 R. H. Moore, USN, mans a .50 cal Machine Gun in a waist blister of a consolidated PBY-5 “Catalina” at Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, 10 March 1944. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 92490.

Consolidated PBY-5 or 5A “Catalina” Patrol Bomber. Waist gunner checks the sights of the plane’s starboard waist .50 Cal. Machine Gun, at extreme depression. Photograph released 20 September 1943. National Archives photograph, 80-G-43096.

Consolidated PBY-5 or 5A “Catalina” Patrol Bomber. Waist gunner checks the sights of the plane’s starboard waist .50 Cal. Machine Gun, at extreme depression. Photograph released 20 September 1943. National Archives photograph, 80-G-43096.

PBY-5s of Squadron VP-52, in flight, 10 February 1944. National Archives photograph, 80-G-223134.

PBY-5s of Squadron VP-52, in flight, 10 February 1944. National Archives photograph, 80-G-223134.

Crash