#MilitaryMonday

Military thank you

US Military appreciation, history and stories in pictures.

1918, USS President Lincoln is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine, (U 90). 26 lives are lost.

Yeoman Howard A. Himmelwright, who was lost in sinking of USS President Lincoln, May 1918. Photo #USN 103369

Yeoman Howard A. Himmelwright, who was lost in sinking of USS President Lincoln, May 1918.
Photo #USN 103369

Officers of USS President Lincoln. Photo #USN 103271

Officers of USS President Lincoln.
Photo #USN 103271

S.S. President Lincoln underway before World War I. She was later named USS President Lincoln. The vessel built by Harland and Wolff (builders of the Titanic , et al.) and acquired in 1917. Photo #USN 41887

S.S. President Lincoln underway before World War I. She was later named USS President Lincoln. The vessel built by Harland and Wolff (builders of the Titanic , et al.) and acquired in 1917.
Photo #USN 41887

Memorial service for those lost with USS President Lincoln, June 1918. Photo #USN 2760

Memorial service for those lost with USS President Lincoln, June 1918.
Photo #USN 2760

U.S. Navy Sailors and Marines from USS Newark (C 1) and USS Oregon (BB 3) arrive at Peking, China, to protect U.S. and foreign diplomatic legations during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. They are joined by Sailors and Marines from Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. Colt machine gun (also known as a "potato digger") and crew left at Legation. McCalla Collections. Presented to the Navy Library by Captain Dudley W. Knox, USN, (Retired), 1926.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. Colt machine gun (also known as a “potato digger”) and crew left at Legation. McCalla Collections. Presented to the Navy Library by Captain Dudley W. Knox, USN, (Retired), 1926.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. Marines defend Peking Legations. Artwork by John Clymer, USMC. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division, #55.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. Marines defend Peking Legations. Artwork by John Clymer, USMC. Courtesy of the US Marine Corps History Division, #55.

Troops of the Eight nations alliance of 1900. Left to right: Britain, United States, Australian colonial, British India, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Japan. 1900.

Troops of the Eight nations alliance of 1900. Left to right: Britain, United States, Australian colonial, British India, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Japan. 1900.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. The kind of guards furnished to Legations by the Chinese Government. McCalla Collections. Presented to the Navy Library by Captain Dudley W. Knox, USN, (Retired), 1926.

Boxer Rebellion, 1900. The kind of guards furnished to Legations by the Chinese Government. McCalla Collections. Presented to the Navy Library by Captain Dudley W. Knox, USN, (Retired), 1926.

1904, the Marine Detachment from USS Brooklyn (ACR 3) lands at Tangiers, Morocco to protect the American Consulate during the dispute between Raisuli and the Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.

USS Brooklyn crew and goat Photo #USN 93704

USS Brooklyn crew and goat
Photo #USN 93704

USS Brooklyn (Armored Cruiser No. 3) In New York Harbor during the Spanish-American War victory naval parade, August 1898. Photo #USN 63096

USS Brooklyn (Armored Cruiser No. 3) In New York Harbor during the Spanish-American War victory naval parade, August 1898.
Photo #USN 63096

Berth deck cooks aboard cruiser USS Brooklyn, 1899. Library of Congress

Berth deck cooks aboard cruiser USS Brooklyn, 1899.
Library of Congress

2004, USS Pinckney (DDG 91) is commissioned at Naval Construction Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, Calif. The Arleigh Burke-class destroyer is named for Cook 1st Class William Pinckney, a Navy Cross recipient.

PACIFIC OCEAN (Aug. 14, 2007) - USS Princeton (CG 59), USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) and USS Pinckney (DDG 91) transit behind the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN 68) during a joint photo exercise marking the conclusion of Valiant Shield 2007 (VS07). The Nimitz Carrier Strike Group (CSG) and embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 11 are deployed in the U.S. 7th Fleet. Valiant Shield 2007 was the largest joint exercise in recent history, including 30 ships, more than 280 aircraft, and more than 20,000 service members from the Navy, Marines Corps, Air Force and Coast Guard. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Eduardo Zaragoza

PACIFIC OCEAN (Aug. 14, 2007) – USS Princeton (CG 59), USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) and USS Pinckney (DDG 91) transit behind the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN 68) during a joint photo exercise marking the conclusion of Valiant Shield 2007 (VS07). The Nimitz Carrier Strike Group (CSG) and embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 11 are deployed in the U.S. 7th Fleet. Valiant Shield 2007 was the largest joint exercise in recent history, including 30 ships, more than 280 aircraft, and more than 20,000 service members from the Navy, Marines Corps, Air Force and Coast Guard. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Eduardo Zaragoza

The guided-missile destroyer USS Pinckney (DDG 91) fires its MK-45 5-inch/54-caliber gun during a pre-aim calibration fire (PACFIRE) training exercise. The Nimitz Carrier Strike Group is on a routine deployment to the region.
(U.S. Navy Photo)

GULF OF THAILAND: A U.S. Navy MH-60R Sea Hawk helicopter lands aboard USS Pinckney (DDG 91) during a crew swap before returning on task in the search and rescue for the missing Malaysian airlines flight MH370. (U.S. Navy Photo)

GULF OF THAILAND: A U.S. Navy MH-60R Sea Hawk helicopter lands aboard USS Pinckney (DDG 91) during a crew swap before returning on task in the search and rescue for the missing Malaysian airlines flight MH370.
(U.S. Navy Photo)

INCHEON, Republic of Korea - The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Pinckney (DDG 91) pulls into a lock gate to accommodate for different water levels as the ship makes way to port in Incheon, Republic of Korea. Pinckney is in the U.S. 7th Fleet area of responsibility. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Eddie Harrison)

INCHEON, Republic of Korea – The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Pinckney (DDG 91) pulls into a lock gate to accommodate for different water levels as the ship makes way to port in Incheon, Republic of Korea. Pinckney is in the U.S. 7th Fleet area of responsibility. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Eddie Harrison)

The only U.S. carrier lost in the Atlantic during WWII‬, USS Block Island (CVE 21) was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-549 in 1944. U-549 was later sunk that night by USS Eugene E. Elmore (DE 686) and USS Ahrens (DE 575).

USS Block Island (CVE 21) after torpedo hits from U-549, 29 May 1944. Image from Task Group 21.11 Serial 0027 Report, copied June 1978.

USS Block Island (CVE 21) after torpedo hits from U-549, 29 May 1944. Image from Task Group 21.11 Serial 0027 Report, copied June 1978.

USS Block Island (CVE 21) underway in the Atlantic, off the mouth of Chesapeake Bay (36-54'N, 75-22'W, course 090) on 15 October 1943. Parked on her flight deck are twelve TBF/TBM Avenger torpedo planes and nine F4F/FM Wildcat fighters. Photographed from a blimp of squadron ZP-14.

USS Block Island (CVE 21) underway in the Atlantic, off the mouth of Chesapeake Bay (36-54’N, 75-22’W, course 090) on 15 October 1943. Parked on her flight deck are twelve TBF/TBM Avenger torpedo planes and nine F4F/FM Wildcat fighters. Photographed from a blimp of squadron ZP-14.

USS Block Island (CVE 21), on trials, circa March 1943. National Archives photograph.

USS Block Island (CVE 21), on trials, circa March 1943. National Archives photograph.

USS Block Island (CVE 21), on trails, March 1943. National Archives photograph.

USS Block Island (CVE 21), on trails, March 1943. National Archives photograph.

A SH-60F Seahawk assigned to Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Five (HS-5) aboard USS John F Kennedy (CV 67) lowers a package on a rescue hoist to ‪#US Navy submarine USS Boise (SSN 764) on May 28, 2002. The Kennedy Battle Group was conducting combat operations in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. (U.S. Navy photo by Photographers Mate 1st Class Jim Hampshire:

13

Raising History: Bringing CSS Georgia to the Surface. The Savannah District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is hosting a special lecture this evening at 7 p.m., at the Savannah History Museum.

Here’s a look at what ‪‎US Navy divers, Navy History’s Underwater Archaeology Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Headquarters and other partners are doing to preserve this piece of‪ American and ‪‎Naval History‬.

Archaeologists working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, and divers and salvage operations teams from the U.S. Navy, retrieve a 64-square foot section of a Civil War ironclad warship from the bottom of the Savannah River the evening of Nov. 12, 2013.

The South will rise again – just one piece at a time – as U.S. Navy divers from Mobile Diving Salvage Unit (MDSU-2) work to free parts of the Confederate ironclad Georgia from the murky, muddy waters of the Savannah River channel.

The Navy divers will work with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) June 1-July 20 as part of the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project, which will deepen the channel from 42 to 47 feet. Part of that project requires the recovery of the ironclad which lies in the path of future dredging.

MDSU-2 will bring up the ship’s armor systems, steam engine components and all her weapons, including four cannons and as many as 50 projectiles, such as rifle shells or cannon balls.

It is a mission that will highlight the skills of Navy divers – quite befitting since 2015 is the Year of the Military Diver.

Navy Diver 1st Class Pete Kozminsky (right) assists Navy Diver 1st Class Calum Sanders, assigned to Mobile Diving Salvage Unit (MDSU) 2, don a Kirby Morgan 37 dive helmet during diver training at Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story, Virginia Beach, Va., May 14 to prepare for an upcoming assignment to salvage CSS Georgia in the Savannah River, Ga., June 1-July 20.

Navy Diver 1st Class Pete Kozminsky (right) assists Navy Diver 1st Class Calum Sanders, assigned to Mobile Diving Salvage Unit (MDSU) 2, don a Kirby Morgan 37 dive helmet during diver training at Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story, Virginia Beach, Va., May 14 to prepare for an upcoming assignment to salvage CSS Georgia in the Savannah River, Ga., June 1-July 20.

“This is what we live for; it’s what we do day in and day out. When it comes to mobile diving, salvage, underwater ship husbandry and force protection, these guys are more proficient than any dive team in the Navy right now,” said Chief Warrant Officer Jason Potts, who leads Mobile Diving Salvage Company 23.

They won’t, however, be the only military personnel involved. Once the weapons are brought onshore, Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal technicians from EOD Mobile Unit 6 Shore Detachment King’s Bay, Ga., will assist in the recovery, and Marine Corps EOD techs will get the ordnance to an offsite location.

Overseeing the operation will be civilian archaeologists from the Underwater Archaeology Branch of the Naval History and Heritage Command, which has been tracking CSS Georgia’s progress since its first excavation dive in the fall of 2013.

“The CSS Georgia recovery project is one of the more interesting projects NHHC underwater archaeologists are undertaking,” said UA branch head Robert Neyland, Ph.D. “The Georgia will be the only Confederate ironclad to be recovered and preserved.”

Neyland was among those who attended the “test” excavation in Nov. 2013 and was the project director and chief archaeologist on the recovery team for Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley.

During the 2013 excavation, it was “revealed the wooden hull has been lost over time due to current, erosion and previous salvage activities,” Neyland said, leaving behind “a substantial amount of armor made from railroad iron, cannon, ordnance.”

Other artifacts recovered have revealed a glimpse into the design and operation of the ship as well as life onboard, he added.

Apparently it wasn’t very pleasant.

The Rebel Iron-clad ‘Georgia’ Line engraving published in Harper’s Weekly, 1863, depicting the CSS Georgia, an ironclad floating battery that served in the defenses of Savannah, Georgia. U.S. Naval History & HC Photograph.

The Rebel Iron-clad ‘Georgia’ Line engraving published in Harper’s Weekly, 1863, depicting the CSS Georgia, an ironclad floating battery that served in the defenses of Savannah, Georgia. U.S. Naval History & HC Photograph.

It “was an extremely hostile environment for the crew who had to work in engine rooms under hellish heat and humidity,” Neyland explained. “The discovery of numerous sets of leg irons highlights these harsh conditions that led sailors to desert. The ship never saw action, which also leads one to believe boredom added to the crew’s discomfort.”

Some of those artifacts will be featured during a free lecture the week before the divers begin their work. The lecture was held at 7 p.m. May 28 at the auditorium of the Savannah History Museum, 303 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Savannah, Ga. The guest speakers were two of the lead archaeologists involved in preserving the ship’s artifacts: Steven James, M.A., with Panamerican Consultants, a principal investigator on the project, and Gordon Watts, PhD., of Tidewater Atlantic Research, co-principal investigator.

Topics for the lecture included the ship’s construction, since there are no blueprints on how the ship was built. The lecture also discussed life aboard the ironclad, as well as how the recovered artifacts will be preserved.

The lecture, which was sponsored by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, was hosted by the Coastal Heritage Society. It was the first of eight public outreach efforts focused on CSS Georgia’s recovery, which is expected to cost the Corps of Engineers up to $14 million. The Corps of Engineers works with the Conservation Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University.

CSS Georgia was built and commissioned in 1863 to protect the river channels below Savannah and Fort Jackson during the Civil War. The ironclad, however, lacked effective locomotion, so she was used mostly as a floating battery. On Dec. 21, 1864, Georgia was scuttled to prevent the ship from falling into the hands of the rapidly advancing Union army led by Gen. William T. Sherman.

After 104 years nestled in the muddy bottom of the Savannah River, the wreck was discovered in 1968 during dredging operations of the channel. Some items were removed during the 1980s. Located on U.S. Navy property, the site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987, according to the U.S. Navy’s Supervisor of Salvage and Division (SUPSALV), part of Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA).

When the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project threatened CSS Georgia’s remains, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stepped in to oversee its excavation under the National Historic Preservation Act. The multi-phase operation began in November 2013 with an initial excavation of a 65-square-foot portion of the upper deck structure with iron to determine the condition of the hull material. From there, a plan to recover and relocate historic artifacts was mapped out, with MDSU-2 providing underwater survey, rigging and topside support.

NHHC’s Underwater Archaeology Branch will validate the redeposit and reburial of sections of the ship below water in a back channel area so it can be preserved and protected should funding later come available to preserve and display CSS Georgia.

“NHHC is the federal owner of the wreck and its artifacts and is working with the USACE-Savannah District and State of Georgia to preserve the ship remains and artifacts and make these available for exhibit and interpretation,” Neyland said. “The NHHC mission fosters United States naval heritage and the lessons learned from that history to the current Navy and the American public.”

On the Web: To follow the CSS Georgia project, visit http://1.usa.gov/1G6S2Hn

Crash

#MilitaryMonday: 73rd Anniversary of Doolittle Raid on Tokyo

Less than 300 feet. Could this really work? It had barely succeeded in practice runs (and those were from the comforts of Eglin Airfield's endless runway.) Now here they were, aboard the seemingly inadequate deck of the USS Hornet - pitching and heaving in the swells of the Pacific.

Less than 300 feet. Could this really work? It had barely succeeded in practice runs (and those were from the comforts of Eglin Airfield’s endless runway.) Now here they were, aboard the seemingly inadequate deck of the USS Hornet – pitching and heaving in the swells of the Pacific.

It’s April 1942 and in the first attack of the Japanese mainland during World War II, the Doolittle Raid begins with 16 Army Air Force B-25 bombers launching from USS Hornet‬ (CV 8), approximately 650 miles off Japan due to being discovered by a Japanese guardboat. U.S. Pacific Fleet

Embarrassed by the attack, the Japanese high command resolves to eliminate the risk of any more raids by destroying America’s aircraft carriers, moving up a decision that leads them to disaster at the Battle of Midway six weeks later in June 1942.

Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, USAAF. Courtesy of US National Archives

Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, USAAF.
Courtesy of US National Archives

Nobody spoke. The B-25’s engines droned on. Co-pilot Lt. Rich Cole’s dogtags clinked and vibrated as the engines grew louder. One last look at the sweetheart – a small photo wedged into the instrument panel.

“God, I hope we covered the checklist,” he silently thought to himself. “Boss will be mad if we didn’t.”

Daring was too weak a description for what these raiders were attempting to pull off. This would alter history … If it were to work.

Failure was not an option.

Cole took a deep breath and pushed the throttle forward.

Less than 19 weeks after the U.S. Navy was attacked at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the American military struck back. On April 18, 1942 – 72 years ago this month – sixteen Army Air Force bombers launched from a Navy aircraft carrier to attack the enemy’s homeland.

Led by Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle, the raid was launched from USS Hornet, commanded by Capt. Marc Mitscher and escorted by ships under the command of Vice Adm. “Bull” Halsey aboard his flagship, USS Enterprise.

The extraordinary joint Doolittle Raid showed Imperial Japan’s military leaders their vulnerability and America’s resolve.

The raid also demonstrated innovation, courage and resilience.

The five-man B-25 crews trained relentlessly prior to their mission, with specialized training led by Navy flight instructor Lt. Henry F. Miller. The Army Air Force made ingenious modifications so the bombers could have extra fuel but less weight.

Pilots, all volunteers, needed to be extremely fearless, taking off in their huge planes from a short flight deck. On rough seas they launched in bitter cold, 75-knot winds and foam-flecked spray, as Sailors aboard recalled.

Doolittle, as his team’s leader, took off first. His success inspired the other pilots just as their entire mission would inspire the nation – putting action to the nationwide words of resolve heard throughout the world: “Remember Pearl Harbor!”

The innovation, courage and resilience demonstrated by Halsey and Doolittle and countless others carried over into the weeks and months that followed – first in the Battle of the Coral Sea and then, in the big turning point of the War in the Pacific – the Battle of Midway.

Historians tell us that the Doolittle Raid contributed strategically to our victory at Midway, as the enemy felt humiliated and overextended to try to prevent another attack on their homeland.

The Doolittle Raid is also an early example of the evolution of “air sea battle,” integrating air and naval capabilities across domains, where collaboration and cooperation helped win the day – and eventually win the war. We remember the heroes of the Doolittle Raid.

This strategically important event is particularly meaningful to our joint team today. This uniquely shared accomplishment is a reminder of what we have the potential to accomplish when we mutually support each other.

The Doolittle Raiders – The Mission

On April 18, 1942, it was a “nice sun-shiny day overcast with anti-aircraft fire,” according to Army Air Force Tech. Sgt. Eldred V. Scott.

Over Tokyo, anyway.

Scott’s weather quip signaled the near completion of the Doolittle Raiders’ mission on that day 72 years ago today. But it was just the beginning of the unknown for the 80 men and their 16 planes.

Seven of those airmen would never return home. None of the planes did. While the bombing mission itself was relatively minor in terms of damage inflicted, the raid set into motion what would become a pivotal naval victory for the U. S. at the Battle of Midway.

The Doolittle Raid featured Army Air Force pilots and planes, but it was a joint effort with the Navy. The raid itself was concocted by Navy Capt. Francis Lowe. Another Navy officer, Lt. Henry L. Miller, is one of two men named as “Honorary Tokyo Raiders.” Miller supervised the take-off training the pilots received at Eglin Field, Fla., and was there for the raid launch. The other was Tung Sheng Liu, a Chinese engineer who helped several Tokyo Raiders escape to safety.

And it was the Navy that provided the transportation – via USS Hornet (CV 8) and her escorts – to the launch point.

The Navy wasn’t without its losses for the Tokyo Raid. One patrol plane was hit by anti-aircraft fire, landing in the water, but the crew was recovered uninjured. Another patrol plane was lost during patrol operations, with both the plane and crew lost. And during the hour-long launch, a Sailor lost his arm after being hit by the final B-25 when it rolled backward out of position, striking him with its propeller.

Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942. Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle, USAAF (front), leader of the raiding force, wires a Japanese medal to a 500-pound bomb, during ceremonies on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV 8), shortly before his force of sixteen B-25B bombers took off for Japan. The planes were launched on 18 April 1942. The wartime censor has obscured unit patches of the Air Force flight crew members in the background. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-41191

Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942. Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle, USAAF (front), leader of the raiding force, wires a Japanese medal to a 500-pound bomb, during ceremonies on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV 8), shortly before his force of sixteen B-25B bombers took off for Japan. The planes were launched on 18 April 1942. The wartime censor has obscured unit patches of the Air Force flight crew members in the background. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-41191

From Conception to Launch

After Pearl Harbor, there was pressure from the commander-in-chief to strike back at Japan. Using carrier-capable aircraft to strike the enemy’s homeland would put a carrier task force into harm’s way for a counterattack, since the lighter Navy planes didn’t have the range of land-based bomb-delivering aircraft. And with only three aircraft carriers left in the Pacific fleet after Pearl Harbor, the U.S. needed to protect every asset.

Navy Capt. Francis Lowe, assigned to U.S. Fleet Commander Adm. Ernest J. King, had seen B-25s taking off from Norfolk, Va., using airstrips shaped a little like a carrier deck, minus the rolling waves. The Mitchell medium bombers, which had never been used in combat before, had the range and the wing-span that would allow for carrier takeoff. Lt. Col. James H. “Jimmy” Doolittle, an air racer who had helped develop instrument flying, was brought in to investigate the feasibility of such a mission, along with Adm. King’s Air Ops officer, Capt. Donald B. “Wu” Duncan.

The newly-commissioned aircraft carrier Hornet left Norfolk under the command of Capt. MarcMitscher to join a convoy to the Panama Canal. Meanwhile Doolittle had chosen his raiders, 5-man crews for the 16 planes, and was training for 500-foot takeoffs at Eglin Field, Fla., under the guidance of Lt. Miller. At the end of March, Hornet docked at Alameda, Calif. Using cranes, 16 B-25s were loaded onto the ship’s deck. With all of the planes loaded and lashed to the deck, the Hornet moored in the bay for the night. It was April 1.

The following morning, Hornet’s crew was made aware of their mission.

Army B-25’s onboard the USS Hornet while en route to their launching point April 18, 1942. (NH 53426 Courtesy of the NHHC Photo archives)

Army B-25’s onboard the USS Hornet while en route to their launching point April 18, 1942. (NH 53426 Courtesy of the NHHC Photo archives)

On April 7, naval operation plan No. 20-42 was issued, creating Task Force 16, with Task Group 16.1 under Vice Adm. William “Bull” Halsey with flagship carrier Enterprise (CV 6) and her escorts. Task Group 16.2 was headed by Capt. Mitscher with his carrier Hornet (CV 8) and her escorts.

The instructions were simple. Proceed after joining up to carry out the attack; upon completion return to Pearl Harbor; destroy enemy forces as long as it doesn’t jeopardize the attack. The two task groups met up April 13 and proceeded to steam toward a point 500 miles east of Tokyo, where they would launch the attack.

To prepare each B-25, loaded with a one-ton bomb, for its mission and flight to a safe zone in China, engineers removed the tail gunner section, painting broomsticks to look like machine guns. A rubber fuel tank was installed in the tail section, along with 10 5-gallon gas cans for manual fuel addition during the flight to a tank installed where the lower gun turret was, and a larger tank located in the bomb bay. The total fuel payload was 1,141 gallons for a 2,000-mile range.

An Army Air Forces B-25B bomber awaits the takeoff signal on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV-8), as the raid is launched, 18 April 1942. Note Flight Deck Officer holding launch flag at right, and white stripes painted on the flight deck to guide the pilot's alignment of his plane's nose and port side wheels. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the U.S. National Archives (photo # 80-G-41194).

An Army Air Forces B-25B bomber awaits the takeoff signal on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV-8), as the raid is launched, 18 April 1942. Note Flight Deck Officer holding launch flag at right, and white stripes painted on the flight deck to guide the pilot’s alignment of his plane’s nose and port side wheels.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the U.S. National Archives (photo # 80-G-41194).

Air patrols scouted the sea looking for enemy ships that could relay their location back to Japan, and submarines Trout and Thresher kept a steady surveillance.

After plowing through gale-force winds of 36 knots during the afternoon of April 17, enemy vessels were picked up on radar at 3:12 a.m. April 18. A light on the horizon confirmed their presence. The task group changed direction by 350 degrees and 30 minutes later, the vessels left the radar screen.

At 7:15 a.m., an Enterprise search plane reported an enemy patrol vessel and the task force sighted it at 7:44 a.m. Nashville dispatched the vessel with gunfire. Over concern the vessel had alerted the Japanese of their presence, Doolittle decided to launch the planes immediately, still 400 miles from their original launch destination.

Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle, USAAF, (center) with members of his flight crew and Chinese officials in China after the 18 April 1942 attack on Japan. Those present are (from left to right): Staff Sergeant Fred A. Braemer, Bombardier; Staff Sergeant Paul J. Leonard, Flight Engineer/Gunner; General Ho, director of the Branch Government of Western Chekiang Province; Lieutenant Richard E. Cole, Copilot; Lt.Col. Doolittle, Pilot and mission commander; Henry H. Shen, bank manager; Lieutenant Henry A. Potter, Navigator; Chao Foo Ki, secretary of the Western Chekiang Province Branch Government. Official U.S. Army Air Forces Photograph, from the collections of the US Navy Museum (# 97502).

Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle, USAAF, (center) with members of his flight crew and Chinese officials in China after the 18 April 1942 attack on Japan.
Those present are (from left to right): Staff Sergeant Fred A. Braemer, Bombardier; Staff Sergeant Paul J. Leonard, Flight Engineer/Gunner; General Ho, director of the Branch Government of Western Chekiang Province; Lieutenant Richard E. Cole, Copilot; Lt.Col. Doolittle, Pilot and mission commander; Henry H. Shen, bank manager; Lieutenant Henry A. Potter, Navigator; Chao Foo Ki, secretary of the Western Chekiang Province Branch Government.
Official U.S. Army Air Forces Photograph, from the collections of the US Navy Museum (# 97502).

The first B-25, flown by Lt. Col. Doolittle, launched at 8:20 a.m. The take-offs were timed for when the ship’s bow pitched highest to give the Mitchell more loft. The average time between takeoffs was less than four minutes. The last B-25 left at 9:19 a.m.

Around 2 p.m., aircraft from Enterprise picked up two more enemy vessels, sinking one and damaging the other.

It wasn’t until after the war the Navy was able to confirm crew on the patrol boat had alerted the Japanese of their location. But when they requested confirmation, there was no answer since the vessel had already been sunk. Getting no response, the Japanese government chose to ignore the message.

The Doolittle Raiders faced some resistance from antiaircraft fire, but most were able to hit their 10 civilian and military targets in Japan. The repercussions of the U.S. hitting the Japanese homeland set in motion a tsunami-like strategic response that would ultimately change the tides of war to an American victory.

Nose of one of the raiding force's B-25B bombers, which is tied down on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV-8) while en route to the takeoff point. This aircraft is mission plane # 11 (USAAF serial # 40-2249), nicknamed "Hari Carrier" and decorated accordingly. The plane's pilot was Capt. C. Ross Greening. It attacked targets in Yokohama. Note slippage mark on the nosewheel and tire, and inscription on the wheel cover: "Inflating instructions inside — check tire pressure daily". USNHHC photograph (#NH 53287).

Nose of one of the raiding force’s B-25B bombers, which is tied down on the flight deck of USS Hornet (CV-8) while en route to the takeoff point. This aircraft is mission plane # 11 (USAAF serial # 40-2249), nicknamed “Hari Carrier” and decorated accordingly. The plane’s pilot was Capt. C. Ross Greening. It attacked targets in Yokohama. Note slippage mark on the nosewheel and tire, and inscription on the wheel cover: “Inflating instructions inside — check tire pressure daily”.
USNHHC photograph (#NH 53287).

Army Air Force Raid That Set Up Naval Victory

After Doolittle’s Raiders dropped bombs on Tokyo, the Japanese military reaction was swift and vengeful. Japanese Combined Fleet commander Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto decided to strike the United States’ mid-Pacific base at Midway atoll and turn it into a Japanese air field. Yamamoto knew the U.S. had insufficient strength to defeat his Royal Imperial Navy, which could generally choose where and when to attack.

The Americans, however, had deduced Yamamoto’s attack through communications intelligence. Adm. Chester Nimitz, the U.S. Pacific Fleet commander, established an ambush and was waiting for the Imperial Navy. The second of the Pacific War’s great carrier battles began June 4, 1942, and by the end, Yamamoto’s forces lost four fleet carriers compared to just one for the United States.

The Battle of Midway had leveled the naval playing field for the American naval force. The base at Midway, though damaged by Japanese air attack, remained operational and later became a vital component in the American trans-Pacific offensive, which soon had the Japanese Imperial Navy on the ropes.

An Army Air Force B25B bomber takes off from USS Hornet (CV 8) at the start of the raid, April 18, 1942. Note men watching from the signal lamp platform at right. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the U.S. National Archives – Courtesy of the NHHC Photo archives)

An Army Air Force B25B bomber takes off from USS Hornet (CV 8) at the start of the raid, April 18, 1942. Note men watching from the signal lamp platform at right. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the U.S. National Archives – Courtesy of the NHHC Photo archives)

Best Laid Plans…

After completing their bombing mission, finding safe haven would be the Raiders’ toughest task. Taking off 400 miles sooner than planned had the planes nearly empty on fuel as they headed toward China. Of the 16 planes, 15 either crash-landed or crew bailed out. Only one plane landed – in Russia – where the crew was held as prisoners with liberal privileges. They escaped 13 months after the raid to a British consulate in Iran.

Seven Doolittle Raiders were killed in the mission: Two drowned and a third was killed by the fall after bailing out; eight were captured by the Japanese. Three of the eight POWs were executed Oct. 15, 1942, and another died of malnutrition Dec. 1, 1943. The surviving four POWs were released in August 1945.

Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle (left front), leader of the attacking force, and Captain Marc A. Mitscher, Commanding Officer of USS Hornet (CV-8), pose with a 500-pound bomb and USAAF aircrew members during ceremonies on Hornet's flight deck, while the raid task force was en route to the launching point. NHHC photo (# NH 64472).

Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle (left front), leader of the attacking force, and Captain Marc A. Mitscher, Commanding Officer of USS Hornet (CV-8), pose with a 500-pound bomb and USAAF aircrew members during ceremonies on Hornet’s flight deck, while the raid task force was en route to the launching point.
NHHC photo (# NH 64472).

The Raiders who landed in China were assisted by American missionary Rev. John M. Birch, whose contacts within Japanese-occupied China helped the Raiders to escape. Afterward, Birch was commissioned a lieutenant in the Army Air Force, continuing his work as a missionary while gathering intelligence on the Japanese. He was killed Aug. 25, 1945, at the age of 27, during a confrontation with Chinese Communists. The John Birch Society honors Birch, a recipient of both the Legion of Merit and the Distinguished Service Medal.

Even though the Doolittle Raiders bombed Tokyo, it was the Chinese who suffered the most from the raid. Furious the Chinese nationalists were protecting the Americans, the Japanese retaliated against several coastal cities suspected of harboring the Americans, killing an estimated 250,000 Chinese citizens.

Brig. Gen James Doolittl poses beside an Air Corps recruiting poster that alluded to his bombing raid on Japan in April 1942. c. 1943.

Brig. Gen James Doolittl poses beside an Air Corps recruiting poster that alluded to his bombing raid on Japan in April 1942. c. 1943.

Doolittle was so convinced his mission had been a failure, he was convinced he would face a court-martial upon his return to the United States. Instead, he was promoted to general, skipping the rank of colonel. He and all of his Raiders were awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Mitscher served in a variety of command leadership positions for the rest of World War II, earning the rank of admiral and title as Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet.

Capt. Lowe, a submariner, was promoted to rear admiral and as Chief of Staff of the 10th Fleet, guided the Atlantic anti-submarine effort. He was also commander of the Cruiser Division 16, which supported the Okinawa invasion and participated in several strikes against the Japanese. After the war, he supervised the surrender and neutralization of Japanese installations in the Pacific. By his retirement in 1956, Lowe had achieved the rank of admiral due to his leadership and combat actions.

Photo # 80-G-41197  USS Hornet launches B-25 bombers on the Doolittle Raid.

Photo # 80-G-41197
USS Hornet launches B-25 bombers on the Doolittle Raid.

Flight instructor Miller earned a Legion of Merit for his duties in training the Doolittle Raider pilots. He served with distinction throughout his career in the Navy, serving in Vietnam and launching the first aircraft carrier strikes on North Vietnam from the decks of Ranger (CV 61), Coral Sea (CV 43) and Hancock (CV 19). On Dec. 2, 1965, he engaged the first nuclear powered Task Force Enterprise (CVN 65) and Bainbridge (DLGN 25) against Vietnam. Miller retired as a Rear Admiral in 1971.

Just weeks after Doolittle’s Raiders flew off her deck, Hornet fought gallantly in the Battle of Midway, where her aircraft shared in the sinking of a Japanese cruiser. During the fight for Guadalcanal, Hornet was the only remaining operational carrier to oppose the enemy.

It was during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, while Hornet’s aircraft attacked and damaged a Japanese carrier, the carrier suffered irreparable damage from torpedoes and kamikazes. After her crew was forced to abandon ship and American attempts to scuttle her failed, Hornet remained afloat until she was torpedoed and sunk by Japanese ships Oct. 27, 1942.

Of the more than 260 American deaths during the battle, 118 came from Hornet, the last U.S. fleet carrier ever sunk by enemy fire.

Hornet was awarded four service stars for her World War II action and Torpedo Squadron 8 earned a Presidential Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism during the Battle of Midway.

Medal to commemorate Doolittle's Raid on Tokyo, April 18, 1942 (obverse and reverse). CMU War Collection

Medal to commemorate Doolittle’s Raid on Tokyo, April 18, 1942 (obverse and reverse).
CMU War Collection

As for Tech. Sgt. Scott, he successfully bailed out over Chun King, China. Upon his return to the U.S. in Aug. 1942, Scott entered officer candidate school, and then served overseas as an aircraft maintenance officer for the rest of World War II, and through both the Korean and Cold wars, retiring from active duty in 1959 as a lieutenant colonel. He died in 1978 at the age of 71.

On the Web:

Doolittle Raid, 18 April 1942 – download the PowerPoint plans of the raid

Official Doolittle Raiders site

Other Official Doolittle Raiders site

Navy’s Role In Doolittle Raid Honored

James Harold “Jimmy” Doolittle

USS Hornet (CV-8)

USS Enterprise (CV-6)

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Sources:

  • Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking. New York: Basic Books, 1997. ISBN 0-465-06835-9.
  • Chun, Clayton K.S. The Doolittle Raid 1942: America’s First Strike Back at Japan (Campaign: 16). Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey, 2006. ISBN 1-84176-918-5.
  • Coletta, Paolo. “Launching the Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 18, 1942”. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 63, No. 1, February 1993.
  • Craig, John S. Peculiar Liaisons: In War, Espionage, and Terrorism in the Twentieth Century. New York: Algora Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-0-87586-331-3.
  • Craven, Wesley Frank and James Lea Cate, series editors. “Chapter 12: Drawing the Battle Line in the Pacific”. Army Air Forces in World War II, Vol. I: Plans and Early Operations, January 1939 to August 1942 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948. (Air Force Historical Studies Office internet edition.)
  • Culbertson, Charles. Forgotten Hero: The Story of Jack Manch, 30 Seconds Over Tokyo and the Self-Sacrifice of An American Warrior. Staunton, Virginia: Clarion Publishing, 2013. ISBN 978-1493501847.
  • Doolittle, James H. and Carroll V. Glines. I Could Never Be So Lucky Again: An Autobiography. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. ISBN 0-553-58464-2.
  • Emmens, Robert G. Guests of the Kremlin. San Rafael, California: Ishi Press International, 2007. ISBN 0-923891-81-1.
  • Gill, G. Hermon. “Volume II – Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945.” Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1968.
  • Glines, Carroll V. The Doolittle Raid: America’s Daring First Strike Against Japan. New York: Orion Books, 1988. ISBN 0-88740-347-6
  • Doolittle’s Tokyo Raiders. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981, First edition 1968. ISBN 978-0-44202-726-1.
  • Four Came Home: The Gripping Story of the Survivors of Jimmy Doolittle’s Two Lost Crews . New York: Van Nostrad Reinhold, 1981, First edition 1966. ISBN 978-1-57510-007-4.
  • Glover, Charles E. “Jimmy Doolittle’s One Moment in Time.” The Palm Beach Post, 18 April 1992.
  • Lawson, Ted W. and Robert Considine, ed.Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo. New York: Random House, Inc., 1943.
  • Martin, Adrian R., and Larry W. Stephenson. Operation Plum: The Ill-fated 27th Bombardment Group and the Fight For the Western Pacific. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 2008. ISBN 1-60344-019-4.
  • Nelson, Craig. The First Heroes: The Extraordinary Story of the Doolittle Raid—America’s First World War II Victory. London: Penguin Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-14-200341-1.
  • Oxford, Edward. “Against All Odds: B-25 Bombers Strike Japan in 1942.” American History Illustrated, March–April 1992.
  • Prange, Gordon W., Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon. Miracle at Midway. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. ISBN 0-07-050672-8.
  • Tillman, Barrett. Enterprise: America’s Fightingest Ship and the Men Who Helped win World War II. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4391-9087-6.
  • Watson, Charles Hoyt. DeShazer: The Doolittle Raider Who Turned Missionary. Winona Lake, Indiana: The Light and Life Press, 1950.
  • Yamamoto, Masahiro. Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2000. ISBN 978-0-2759-6904-2.

#MilitaryMonday

Military thank you

In the USA, the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida has put together an exhibit to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II‬.

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All of us probably know or knew someone who served during the war, so please mention below in the comments who your member of the Greatest Generation is.

For me, it was my paternal Grandparents. Grandad flew Lancaster bombers for the RAF that assaulted Nazi Germany, while, my Grandmother served in the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force as a meteorologist.

My maternal Grandparents were also in the fight against the Axis powers, with Grandad serving as a US Navy pilot in the Pacific and Grandma was a WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), Their official name was the U.S. Naval Reserve (Women’s Reserve), but the nickname as the WAVES stuck.

WAVES Recruiting poster. World War II brought the need for additional personnel. The US Navy organized to recruit women into a separate women's auxiliary, labeled Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES). WAVES served in varied positions around the continental U.S. and in Hawaii.

WAVES Recruiting poster.
World War II brought the need for additional personnel. The US Navy organized to recruit women into a separate women’s auxiliary, labeled Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES). WAVES served in varied positions around the continental U.S. and in Hawaii.

Just about everyone heeded the call to play their part, do their duty and contribute in some way. Endless thanks to the Greatest Generation and for those serving today in the cause of freedom!

Info: National Naval Aviation Museum

1750 Radford Blvd, Pensacola, FL 32506

(850) 452-3604

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#WarriorWednesday: U. S. Navy

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March 1915, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) was established by Congress.

The CNO is responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the command, utilization of resources, and operating efficiency of the operating forces of the US Navy and of the Navy shore activities assigned by the Secretary. Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert is the current CNO.

Tingey House, Washington Navy Yard, D.C. View of the Quarters of the Chief of Naval Operations. This house was constructed between 1804 and 1807 in Georgian Style and changes in “Victorian” style were made in 1861. Photographed circa 1979. National Archives photograph, KN 27600 (Color).  Note: Tingey House became the official residence of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1977.

Tingey House, Washington Navy Yard, D.C. View of the Quarters of the Chief of Naval Operations. This house was constructed between 1804 and 1807 in Georgian Style and changes in “Victorian” style were made in 1861. Photographed circa 1979. National Archives photograph, KN 27600 (Color).
Note: Tingey House became the official residence of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1977.

Adm. William S. Benson, USN. 1st Chief of Naval Operations, 11 May 1915 – 25 September 1919. Portrait by Eleanor R. Beckham, 1960. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77665-KN (Color). Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC. Donated by the Benson Family, 1960.

Adm. William S. Benson, USN. 1st Chief of Naval Operations, 11 May 1915 – 25 September 1919. Portrait by Eleanor R. Beckham, 1960. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 77665-KN (Color). Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC. Donated by the Benson Family, 1960.

Adm. Arleigh A. Burke, USN. 15th Chief of Naval Operations from 17 August 1955 to 01 August 1961. Portrait photograph, dated 15 December 1958. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, KN-12924 (Color)

Adm. Arleigh A. Burke, USN. 15th Chief of Naval Operations from 17 August 1955 to 01 August 1961. Portrait photograph, dated 15 December 1958. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, KN-12924 (Color)

Adm. Jeremy M. Boorda, USN. 25th Chief of Naval Operations from 23 April 1994 to 16 May 1996. Admiral Boorda address the crew on board USS Constellation (CV 64) circa 1995. DOD Still Media Photograph: DN-SC-96-00079.

Adm. Jeremy M. Boorda, USN. 25th Chief of Naval Operations from 23 April 1994 to 16 May 1996. Admiral Boorda address the crew on board USS Constellation (CV 64) circa 1995. DOD Still Media Photograph: DN-SC-96-00079.

Fleet Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, USN. Nimitz was promoted to Fleet Admiral on 19 December 1944 . 10th Chief of Naval Operations from 15 December 1945 to 15 December 1947. Portrait by Seymour Stone, 1946. Courtesy of the Artist.  Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archive, 80-G-K-14615 (Color).

Fleet Adm. Chester W. Nimitz, USN. Nimitz was promoted to Fleet Admiral on 19 December 1944 . 10th Chief of Naval Operations from 15 December 1945 to 15 December 1947. Portrait by Seymour Stone, 1946. Courtesy of the Artist.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archive, 80-G-K-14615 (Color).

‘Enemy Forces Engaged,’ USS Houston Fought Insurmountable Odds

USS Houston (CA 30), starboard view. Undated and unknown location. (Photo courtesy of the National Archives)

USS Houston (CA 30), starboard view. Undated and unknown location. (Photo courtesy of the National Archives)

In the finest of naval traditions the crew of USS Sampson (DDG 102), along with others, honors their fellow U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy shipmates from USS Houston (CA 30) and HMAS Perth (D 29) during a wreath laying ceremony.

Read more about how Houston and Perth fought against insurmountable odds during World War II‬.

…in remembrance of the 1,082 brave men of the heavy cruiser USS Houston (CA 30).

It was in the early hours of March 1st, 73 years ago, that she sailed for the final time into the teeth of enemy fire. While heading for the Sunda Strait, and in concert with the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth, she ran into the main Japanese invasion force then landing on the island of Java. This force consisted, in its entirety, of one light carrier, one seaplane carrier, five cruisers, 12 destroyers, a mine-layer and 58 troopships.

Low on fuel and with her after turret out of action, this as a result of earlier damage sustained at the Battle of Makassar Strait, Houston, along with Perth, entered the fray. The last message anyone would ever hear from these ships was a radio transmission sent by Houston; the message read “Enemy forces engaged.”

Perth went down first, fighting to the end, but even the heroism of her crew could not overcome four torpedo strikes and untold hits by enemy cannon. When Perth succumbed, 353 men went down with her including her commanding officer, Capt. Hector Waller.

Battle of Sunda Strait, 28 February – 1 March 1942. Painting by John Hamilton depicting USS Houston (CA 30) in her final action with Japanese forces. Courtesy of the US Navy Memorial Foundation. Painting from the John Hamilton collection. (Courtesy of NHHC Art Gallery/Hampton Roads Naval Museum)

Battle of Sunda Strait, 28 February – 1 March 1942. Painting by John Hamilton depicting USS Houston (CA 30) in her final action with Japanese forces. Courtesy of the US Navy Memorial Foundation. Painting from the John Hamilton collection. (Courtesy of NHHC Art Gallery/Hampton Roads Naval Museum)

Houston was now left alone, surrounded by enemy ships and aircraft. In quick succession she was hit by shell and torpedo but continued to fight on. Some time after 01:30, having been hit scores of times, faced with extensive flooding below decks, out of ammunition for her main guns, and with fires raging out of control, Capt. Albert Rooks, the commanding officer, gave the order to abandon ship. Only minutes later he was killed by an exploding Japanese shell.

Houston was bathed in the glare of Japanese searchlights, still under heavy fire and settling by the bow when her surviving crew gave her to the sea. As she began her final plunge one survivor wrote that “it seemed as a sudden breeze picked up the Stars and Stripes, still firmly blocked on the mainmast, and waved them in one last defiant gesture.” Other survivors saw red tracer fire still spitting out of a machine gun platform as one lone Marine, Gunnery Sgt. Walter Standish, true to the traditions of the Corps continued firing until the sea took him.

Some 675 Sailors and Marines died with Houston. Most of these men were killed during her final battle, were taken down with the ship or died when the pitiless tide washed them into the vast Indian Ocean but others were machine gunned as they swam helpless in the water.

The 366 survivors were taken into captivity, but their ordeal was far from over. Many would end up in POW camps in Burma, where they were forced, under inhuman conditions, to construct the infamous Burma Railway. Of this handful of survivors a further 76 died of sickness, abuse, torture, hunger and neglect. At war’s end in 1945 only 290 men remained, many broken in body but not in spirit, to return to the United States. Think of them, for they paid the full price in defense of our freedoms.

As one of the survivors later wrote —“Well Done , Well Done!”

Images from the USS Houston (CA 30) and HMAS Perth (D 29) wreath laying ceremony:

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, salute during the playing of taps aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, salute during the playing of taps aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102) conduct a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102) conduct a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - (from the left) Cmdr. Steven Foley, commanding officer of the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), Rear Adm. Charlie Williams, commander, Task Force 73 and Ambassador Robert Blake, ambassador of the U.S. Embassy in Indonesia, observe a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – (from the left) Cmdr. Steven Foley, commanding officer of the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), Rear Adm. Charlie Williams, commander, Task Force 73 and Ambassador Robert Blake, ambassador of the U.S. Embassy in Indonesia, observe a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Machinery Repairman 3rd Class Matthew Schneider.

 (Mar. 1, 2015) - (from the left) Cmdr. Steven Foley, commanding officer of the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), Ambassador Paul Grigson, ambassador designate of the Embassy of Australia in Indonesia, Ambassador Robert Blake, ambassador of the U.S. Embassy in Indonesia, and Rear Adm. Charlie Williams, commander, Task Force 73, conduct a media availability after a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – (from the left) Cmdr. Steven Foley, commanding officer of the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), Ambassador Paul Grigson, ambassador designate of the Embassy of Australia in Indonesia, Ambassador Robert Blake, ambassador of the U.S. Embassy in Indonesia, and Rear Adm. Charlie Williams, commander, Task Force 73, conduct a media availability after a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), bottom, the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84), top left, and Indonesian Navy vessels participate in a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102), bottom, the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84), top left, and Indonesian Navy vessels participate in a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Sailors aboard the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84) conduct a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Sailors aboard the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84) conduct a wreath laying ceremony held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

 (Mar. 1, 2015) - Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102) and the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84), top, participate in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Sailors aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102) and the Australian Armidale-class patrol boat HMAS Larrakia (ACPB 84), top, participate in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait. Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, salute during the playing of taps aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, salute during the playing of taps aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) - Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, bow their heads during a moment of silence aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

(Mar. 1, 2015) – Participants in a wreath laying ceremony, held in commemoration of the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Sunda Strait, bow their heads during a moment of silence aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Sampson (DDG 102). Representatives from Australia, the U.S. and Indonesia visited the graves of HMAS Perth (D 29) and USS Houston (CA 30) which were sunk fighting Japanese naval forces March 1, 1942. More than 1,000 Australian and U.S. Sailors gave their lives during the battle. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Christopher Perez.

March 1942, the first U-boat sunk by U.S. forces in World War II.

US Navy‬ Reserve pilot Ensign William Tepuni, flying a Lockheed Hudson reconnaissance, light bombing and transport aircraft (PBO) from VP-82 squadron attacks and sinks German submarine U 656 southwest of Newfoundland.

Lockheed PBO “Hudson” Patrol Bomber. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Aviation.

Lockheed PBO “Hudson” Patrol Bomber. NHHC Photograph Collection, Visual-Aid Cards, Aviation.

Lockheed PBO “Hudson” Patrol Bomber.  Photographed circa 1942-43.  NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 94913.

Lockheed PBO “Hudson” Patrol Bomber.
Photographed circa 1942-43.
NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 94913.

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Fair Winds and Following Seas‬ to U.S. Army Reserve Veteran‬ and actor‪ Leonard Nimoy‬. Scotty … one shipmate to beam up.‪ Live Long And Prosper.‬

This laser disc is part of the U.S. Navy Artifact collection and is a limited edition for the movie StarTrek‬ VI The Undiscovered Country, displayed aboard USS Enterprise‬ (CVN 65).

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#MilitaryMonday: Late June 1944 – Normandy, France

A glimpse into what was happening in Normandy, France 70 years ago…

National Ensigns fly proudly as a pair of landing craft hits the beach somewhere in Normandy. Overhead barrage balloons protect against dive-bomber attack. US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

National Ensigns fly proudly as a pair of landing craft hits the beach somewhere in Normandy. Overhead barrage balloons protect against dive-bomber attack.
US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Clearing Normandy beaches of the tricks and devices set up by the Nazis in a futile attempt to prevent or delay an Allied landing, members of a U. S. Navy Beach Battalion uproot the spider-like obstructions intended to rip out the bottoms of our ships. Though visible at low tide, the obstructions were covered with water at high tide. US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Clearing Normandy beaches of the tricks and devices set up by the Nazis in a futile attempt to prevent or delay an Allied landing, members of a U. S. Navy Beach Battalion uproot the spider-like obstructions intended to rip out the bottoms of our ships. Though visible at low tide, the obstructions were covered with water at high tide.
US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Proving the amphibious nature of World War II, these US Navy men are stationed ashore somewhere in France to perform duties which will further the cooperation of land and sea forces. US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Proving the amphibious nature of World War II, these US Navy men are stationed ashore somewhere in France to perform duties which will further the cooperation of land and sea forces.
US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Exhausted from their rapid advance inland from the Normandy beachhead, US soldiers relax for a few minutes outside a French cafe. US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

Exhausted from their rapid advance inland from the Normandy beachhead, US soldiers relax for a few minutes outside a French cafe.
US Navy Official photograph, Gift of Charles Ives, from the collection of The National WWII Museum.

All images courtesy of The National WWII Museum, New Orleans, LA.

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#WarriorWednesday: June 1913 – LTJG Patrick N. L. Bellinger Sets US Altitude Record

Lieutenant Commander Bellinger in 1919, probably around the time he commanded NC-1 during the first Trans-Atlantic Flight in May.

Lieutenant Commander Bellinger in 1919, probably around the time he commanded NC-1 during the first Trans-Atlantic Flight in May.

On Jun. 13, 1913, Lt. j. g. Patrick Niesson Lynch Bellinger set an American altitude record for seaplanes when he reached 6,200 feet in a Curtiss A-3 aircraft at Annapolis, Maryland.

Curtiss AH-3, seaplane on water, 1914. National Archives photograph: 80-G-459635.

Curtiss AH-3, seaplane on water, 1914. National Archives photograph: 80-G-459635.

Vice Admiral Patrick Niesson Lynch Bellinger, USN. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 56142.

Vice Admiral Patrick Niesson Lynch Bellinger, USN. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 56142.

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1 April 1893: Establishment of US Navy Chief Petty Officers

On Apr. 1, 1893, Chief Petty Officers were established by Navy General Order 409, which was authorized by an Executive Order by President Benjamin Harrison on Feb. 25, 1893. Navy Chiefs, come and “spin a yarn” about your proudest moment as a Chief.

List of Chiefs who received the Medal of Honor. Created and provided by ITCM Jim Leuci, USNR, for the MCPON's Block 39 program.

List of Chiefs who received the Medal of Honor. Created and provided by ITCM Jim Leuci, USNR, for the MCPON’s Block 39 program.

Female U.S. Navy chief and master chief petty officers (CPO) pose for a group photograph during the 115th birthday celebration of the CPO rank on board the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) in the Pacific Ocean April 1, 2008. The CPO is one of the oldest ranks in the Navy. Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group is conducting a composite training unit exercise in preparing for an upcoming deployment. Photographed by MC2 Joseph M. Buliavac. DOD Still Media Photograph: 080401-N-RC734-115

Female U.S. Navy chief and master chief petty officers (CPO) pose for a group photograph during the 115th birthday celebration of the CPO rank on board the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) in the Pacific Ocean April 1, 2008. The CPO is one of the oldest ranks in the Navy. Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group is conducting a composite training unit exercise in preparing for an upcoming deployment. Photographed by MC2 Joseph M. Buliavac. DOD Still Media Photograph: 080401-N-RC734-115

Chief Pharmacist’s Mate Louis Zeller, USN. He was a member of the crew of USS Christabel and patrolled off Brest, France during WWI. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by Admiral Wilson. Zeller dove into water filled with burning exploding powder boxes from the Florence H to rescue badly burned seaman, managing to accomplish this within seconds of a severe explosion. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 63045.

Chief Pharmacist’s Mate Louis Zeller, USN. He was a member of the crew of USS Christabel and patrolled off Brest, France during WWI. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by Admiral Wilson. Zeller dove into water filled with burning exploding powder boxes from the Florence H to rescue badly burned seaman, managing to accomplish this within seconds of a severe explosion. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 63045.

U.S. Navy Chief Logistics Specialist De'Andre Allen proctors the Navy-wide petty officer third class advancement exam at Commander, Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, March 18, 2010. Test takers are given three hours to complete the exam, which consists of 200 multiple-choice question. Photographed by MC3 Charles Oki. Defense Still Media Photograph, 100318-N-2013O-006.

U.S. Navy Chief Logistics Specialist De’Andre Allen proctors the Navy-wide petty officer third class advancement exam at Commander, Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, March 18, 2010. Test takers are given three hours to complete the exam, which consists of 200 multiple-choice question. Photographed by MC3 Charles Oki. Defense Still Media Photograph, 100318-N-2013O-006.

Chief Steward Yung Chin Chang, USN. Chief Chang, a Chinese-American, enlisted in the 1930s and served during World War II. His hometown was Hangkow, and he served on board USS Luzon (ARG-2). He also served on Guam and Oahu, Hawaii. During World War II, he was also a Prisoner of War at Cavite, Philippines. Donation of Mr. Jim Huen, 2009. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 106868-KN (Color).

Chief Steward Yung Chin Chang, USN. Chief Chang, a Chinese-American, enlisted in the 1930s and served during World War II. His hometown was Hangkow, and he served on board USS Luzon (ARG-2). He also served on Guam and Oahu, Hawaii. During World War II, he was also a Prisoner of War at Cavite, Philippines. Donation of Mr. Jim Huen, 2009. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 106868-KN (Color).

Chief Aviation Ordnanceman John William Finn, USN. Who was awarded the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism and distinguished service during the 7 December 1941 Japanese air attack on Naval Air Station Kanoehe Bay, Oahu, T.H. He is wearing the medal in this photograph. Halftone reproduction, copied from the official publication "Medal of Honor, 1861-1948, The Navy", page 183.

Chief Aviation Ordnanceman John William Finn, USN. Who was awarded the Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism and distinguished service during the 7 December 1941 Japanese air attack on Naval Air Station Kanoehe Bay, Oahu, T.H. He is wearing the medal in this photograph.
Halftone reproduction, copied from the official publication “Medal of Honor, 1861-1948, The Navy”, page 183.

John Henry ("Dick") Turpin, Chief Gunner's Mate, USN (retired) (1876-1962). One of the first African-American Chief Petty Officers in the U.S. Navy. This photograph appears to have been taken during or after World War II. Turpin enlisted in the Navy in 1896. A survivor of the explosions on USS Maine (1898) and USS Bennington (1905), he became a Chief Gunner's Mate in 1917. Transferred to the Fleet Reserve in 1919, CGM Turpin retired in 1925. Qualified as a Master Diver, he was also employed as a Master Rigger at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, and, during the World War II era, made inspirational visits to Navy Training Centers and defense plants. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 89471.

John Henry (“Dick”) Turpin, Chief Gunner’s Mate, USN (retired) (1876-1962). One of the first African-American Chief Petty Officers in the U.S. Navy. This photograph appears to have been taken during or after World War II. Turpin enlisted in the Navy in 1896. A survivor of the explosions on USS Maine (1898) and USS Bennington (1905), he became a Chief Gunner’s Mate in 1917. Transferred to the Fleet Reserve in 1919, CGM Turpin retired in 1925. Qualified as a Master Diver, he was also employed as a Master Rigger at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, and, during the World War II era, made inspirational visits to Navy Training Centers and defense plants. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 89471.

Chief Boatswain's Mate John MacKenzie, USNRF. Wearing the Medal of Honor he received in recognition of his heroism in securing a depth charge that had come adrift on board USS Remlik (SP-157) during a heavy gale on 17 December 1917. Collection of Chief Boatswain's Mate John MacKenzie, USNRF. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98032.

Chief Boatswain’s Mate John MacKenzie, USNRF. Wearing the Medal of Honor he received in recognition of his heroism in securing a depth charge that had come adrift on board USS Remlik (SP-157) during a heavy gale on 17 December 1917. Collection of Chief Boatswain’s Mate John MacKenzie, USNRF. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 98032.

Chiefs! USS Pennsylvania (BB-38). View of seven veteran chief petty officers, circa 1941. (left to right): Chief Gunner's Mate Louie Warner; Chief Boatswain's Mate Frederick Heintz; Chief Quartermaster Joseph Wagster; Chief John Wilson; Chief Boatswain's Mate Robert Hernlen; Chief Steward Alexander Siewart; and Chief Fire Controlman Samuel Kronberger. Note 14"/45 Cal. Guns and Vought OS2U "Kingfisher" on catapault in background. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 51890.

Chiefs! USS Pennsylvania (BB-38). View of seven veteran chief petty officers, circa 1941. (left to right): Chief Gunner’s Mate Louie Warner; Chief Boatswain’s Mate Frederick Heintz; Chief Quartermaster Joseph Wagster; Chief John Wilson; Chief Boatswain’s Mate Robert Hernlen; Chief Steward Alexander Siewart; and Chief Fire Controlman Samuel Kronberger. Note 14″/45 Cal. Guns and Vought OS2U “Kingfisher” on catapault in background. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 51890.

USS Squalus (SS-192) Rescue and Salvage Operations, 1939. Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison presents Medals of Honor to four men for heroism during rescue and salvage operations following the accidental sinking of Squalus on 23 May 1939. The ceremonies took place at the Navy Department on 19 January 1940. The men are (from left to right): Chief Machinist's Mate William Badders; Chief Torpedoman John Mihalowski; Chief Boatswain's Mate Orson L. Crandall; and Chief Metalsmith James Harper McDonald. All were qualified as Divers. The Diver's distinguishing mark is visible on the Mihalowski's and Crandall's jacket sleeves. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 57887.

USS Squalus (SS-192) Rescue and Salvage Operations, 1939. Secretary of the Navy Charles Edison presents Medals of Honor to four men for heroism during rescue and salvage operations following the accidental sinking of Squalus on 23 May 1939. The ceremonies took place at the Navy Department on 19 January 1940.
The men are (from left to right):
Chief Machinist’s Mate William Badders;
Chief Torpedoman John Mihalowski;
Chief Boatswain’s Mate Orson L. Crandall; and
Chief Metalsmith James Harper McDonald.
All were qualified as Divers. The Diver’s distinguishing mark is visible on the Mihalowski’s and Crandall’s jacket sleeves. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 57887.

PHC William J. Murtha, USN. Portrait inscribed to the donor, “To a real pal and shipmate. One that I’ll never forget. From Bill Murtha, circa 1944. Courtesy of PHC John Highfill, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 94867.

PHC William J. Murtha, USN. Portrait inscribed to the donor, “To a real pal and shipmate. One that I’ll never forget. From Bill Murtha, circa 1944. Courtesy of PHC John Highfill, USN, (Retired). NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 94867.

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05 Feb 1971: Apollo 14 Lunar Landing Mission at Fra Mauro

Apollo 14

The prime crew of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Command Module pilot, Stuart A. Roosa, Commander, Alan B. Shepard Jr. and Lunar Module pilot Edgar D. Mitchell. The Apollo 14 mission emblem is in the background.

On February 5, 1971, Capt. Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Apollo 14 Commander, and Cdr. Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module Pilot became the 5th and 6th human to walk on the Moon. During the 9 day mission, 94 lbs of lunar material was collected and Shepard became the first person to hit a golf ball on the moon. Col. Stuart A. Roosa was the command module pilot on this mission. Recovery was by helicopter from USS New Orleans (LPH-11).

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“GOSS Mission Profile”
Apollo manned lunar landing graphic, published by NASA 1967. Photo: NASA / JSC.

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Apollo 14 Saturn V launch vehicle on transporter, on a incline the transporter compensates to maintain a level platform.
Photo: NASA

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The huge, 363-feet tall Apollo 14 (Spacecraft 110/Lunar Module 8/Saturn 509) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:03:02 p.m. (EST), Jan. 31, 1971, on a lunar landing mission. This view of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower. Aboard the Apollo 14 spacecraft were astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander; Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot; and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot. Courtesy of the NASA Photograph Collection: S71-17620.

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Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 Commander, stands by the U.S. flag on the lunar Fra Mauro Highlands during the early moments of the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1) of the mission. Shadows of the Lunar Module “Antares”, astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module pilot, and the erectable S-band Antenna surround the scene of the third American flag planting to be performed on the lunar surface.

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A front view of the Apollo 14 Lunar Module “Antares”, which reflects a circular flare caused by the brilliant sun. The unusual ball of light was said by the astronauts to have a jewel-like appearance. At extreme left, the lower slope of Cone Crater can be seen. Courtesy of the NASA Photograph Collection.

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The third United States flag to be deployed on the lunar surface, footprints, wheel tracks and the “Rickshaw”-type portable workbench, as seen by the two moon-exploring astronauts from inside the Lunar Module (LM), give evidence of a busy first extravehicular activity (EVA) period. The two-wheeled cart is the Apollo modularized equipment transporter (MET), covered with a sheet of foil material to protect the cameras and rock box between EVAs. While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit, 5 February 1971. Courtesy of the NASA Photograph Collection: AS14-66-9325

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An excellent view of the Apollo 14 Lunar Module (LM) on the moon, as photographed during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. Courtesy of the NASA Photograph Collection: AS14-66-9278.

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The Apollo Command and Service Modules (CSM) are photographed against a black sky background from the Lunar Module (LM) above the moon. While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM “Antares” to explore the Fra Mauro region of the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa , command module pilot, remained with the CSM “Kitty Hawk” in lunar orbit, 5 February 1971. Courtesy of the NASA Photograph Collection: AS14-66-9344.

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USS New Orleans (LPH 11), underway, 3 March 1969. Photographed by PH1 M. Blair. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-File, Ships.

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Large format Panorama,
Apollo 14 Landing Site, Solar Wind Collector
Feature(s): Cone Ridge.
Photo: NASA

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NASA Lunar Chart,
U.S. Defense Mapping Agency LPC-1
1:10,000,000
2nd Edition 1979.
Image: NASA

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Uncalibrated LROC NAC image of the Apollo 14 landing site and nearby Cone crater. The trail followed by the astronauts can clearly be discerned. Image width is 1.6 km. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University.

More about the above image at http://1.usa.gov/1kd3riA

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Plaque left on the Lunar Lander, Apollo 14, NASA Photo.

On the Web:

Apollo 14 primary flight crew bios on the NASA / JSC website:
www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/shepard-alan.html
www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/mitchell-ed.html
www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/roosa-sa.html

Read more about Apollo 14 on the Smithsonian website: http://bit.ly/1buS68D

More about the Apollo Program on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration – NASA website: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/index.html

Apollo 14 Press kit: www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a14/A14_PressKit.pdf

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#ThrowbackThursday: 30 Jan 1944 – USS North Carolina (BB 55) sinks Japanese transport

On January 30, 1944, USS North Carolina (BB 55) sank Japanese transport Eiko Maru off the west coast of Roi.

Also on this date, USS Burns (DD 588) sank Japanese transport Akibasan Maru and guardboat Nichiei Maru off Ujae while SBDs and F6Fs from USS Enterprise (CV 6), USS Yorktown (CV 10), USS Bunker Hill (CV 17) and USS Belleau Wood (CVL 24) attacked Japanese shipping in Marshall Islands and sank auxiliary submarine chasers Cha 18 and Cha 21 and guardboat No.6 Shonan Maru at Kwajalein.

At Mille, Japanese vessels sunk were: Cha 14, Cha 19, Cha 28. Additionally, Japanese cargo vessel Katasura Maru was damaged at Eniwetok and USS Phelps (DD 360) helps sink the vessel.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55)
Anchored off the Puget Sound Navy Yard,
Washington, 24 September 1944.
She is painted in what may be a variant of Camouflage Measure 32, Design 18D. U.S. Navy Photograph, NHHC Photo.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55). Fires her after 16″/45 guns in June 1941, during her shakedown cruise. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-13511 (Color).

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USS Bunker Hill (CV-17). At sea while participating in strikes on the Palau Islands, 27 March 1944. She is painted in camouflage Measure 33, Design 6A. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-1560.

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USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24). Underway on 22 December 1943. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 97269.

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USS Yorktown (CV-10). Underway circa mid-1943, possibly during her shakedown cruise in the late spring. Planes on deck include F6F “Hellcat” fighters and SB2C “Helldiver” scout-bombers. Note this carrier’s unique longitudinal black flight deck stripe. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-14379 (Color)

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USS Enterprise (CV-6). En route to New York to take part in the Navy Day Fleet Review, October 1945. She is steaming in company with a light carrier (CVL) — in the right distance– and another warship. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-6576 (Color).

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USS Phelps (DD-360). Off the Charleston Navy Yard, South Carolina, about November 1944.
She is painted in camouflage Measure 32, Design 3d. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives, 19-N-73964.

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USS Burns (DD 580) , taken from Naval Air Station, Weeksville, 17 July 1943. National Archives photograph: 80-G-76604. Note, on 30 January 1945, Burns sank Japanese guardboat No.2 Hokoku Maru off Ojae.

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Guadalcanal Invasion, August 1942. Ordnancemen of Scouting Squadron Six (VS-6) load a 500 pound demolition bomb on an SBD scout bomber on the flight deck of USS Enterprise (CV-6), during the first day of strikes on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, 7 August 1942. Note aircraft’s landing gear and bomb crutch; also bomb cart and hoist. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-10458.

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USS Enterprise (CV-6). F6F “Hellcat” fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-74510.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55)
Photographed during her shakedown cruise, May 1941.
The battleship is framed by an escorting destroyer’s deck, 5″/38 gun barrel and a crewman.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

On the Web:

USS North Carolina

USS Enterprise

USS Bunker Hill

USS Belleau Wood

USS Yorktown

USS Phelps

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#MilitaryMonday: USS Higbee (DD 806) Commissioned – First USN Vessel Named for a Female

On January 27, 1945, the U.S. Navy Destroyer USS Higbee (DD 806), was commissioned. She was the first U.S. Navy combat ship to bear the name of a female member of the Naval service, a USN nurse to boot!.

Also a veteran of both the Korean and Vietnam Wars, she was decommissioned in 1979 and later sunk as a target in 1986. Note, Higbee was redesignated as (DDR-806) in 1949 but was later resdesignated to her former hull number (DD 806) in 1963.

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USS Higbee (DD-806) at sea off the coast of Hawaii, 1974. Higbee was the first U.S. Navy ship named after a woman member of the U.S. Navy. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-file.

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Namesake of USS Higbee (DD-806), Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee, (NC) USN. This portrait photograph was taken in uniform during the World War I era. She was the second Superintendent of the Navy Nurse Corps, from 20 January 1911 to 30 November 1922. National Archives photograph, #80-G-1037198.

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Lieutenant Ramona E. Lambert, NC, USNR, poses with the Flag of USS Higbee (DD 806), named for Lenah S. Higbee, the second commandant of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps, taken circa 1945. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95034.

On the Web:

Read more about USN Chief Nurse Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee

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