#MilitaryMonday

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Military Monday is a weekly feature in appreciation of the armed forces of the United States and its Allies.

1777, the Continental Congress adopts the design of the present U.S. flag. Journal entry reads: “Resolved, that the Flag of the thirteen United States shall be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new constellation.”

The ‪‎US Navy‬ played a key role in our flag’s history: http://go.usa.gov/3EqJA

“140th Flag Day, 1777-1917”. Color lithograph shows a man raising the American flag, with a minuteman cheering and an eagle flying above. 'Tis the Star Spangled Banner, oh, long may it wave, o'er the land of the free and the home of the brave’ Library of Congress photograph

“140th Flag Day, 1777-1917”. Color lithograph shows a man raising the American flag, with a minuteman cheering and an eagle flying above. ‘Tis the Star Spangled Banner, oh, long may it wave, o’er the land of the free and the home of the brave’ Library of Congress photograph

The Birth of Old Glory. Artist Percy Morgan, circa 1917. Betsy Ross and two girls showing the U.S. Flag to George Washington and three other men. Library of Congress Photograph

The Birth of Old Glory. Artist Percy Morgan, circa 1917. Betsy Ross and two girls showing the U.S. Flag to George Washington and three other men. Library of Congress Photograph

U.S. Navy Sailors and Morning Colors. U.S. Navy photo

U.S. Navy Sailors and Morning Colors.
U.S. Navy photo

(April 5, 2011) Sailors assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) practice for the San Diego Padres opening day flag ceremony. Approximately 300 volunteers unfurled an 800-pound flag that covered the entire field. Bonhomme Richard is in dry dock for maintenance and upgrades through April. (U.S. Navy photo)

(April 5, 2011) Sailors assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) practice for the San Diego Padres opening day flag ceremony. Approximately 300 volunteers unfurled an 800-pound flag that covered the entire field. Bonhomme Richard is in dry dock for maintenance and upgrades through April. (U.S. Navy photo)

Pacific Ocean (April 11, 2006) - The American flag flies high as the Utility Landing Craft (LCU 1635) travels to unload excess ammunition off of the amphibious assault ship USS Tarawa (LHA 1). Tarawa is offloading her ammunition to the amphibious assault ship USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6), which is preparing for a deployment to the Persian Gulf. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer’s Mate Airman Apprentice Bryan Niegel

Pacific Ocean (April 11, 2006) – The American flag flies high as the Utility Landing Craft (LCU 1635) travels to unload excess ammunition off of the amphibious assault ship USS Tarawa (LHA 1). Tarawa is offloading her ammunition to the amphibious assault ship USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6), which is preparing for a deployment to the Persian Gulf. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer’s Mate Airman Apprentice Bryan Niegel

1956, USS Canberra is recommissioned as (CAG 2) at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Pa. Originally to be named USS Pittsburgh, the ship was renamed to honor the loss of HMAS Canberra during the Battle of Savo Island.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) eight-inch guns of Turret # 2 firing, during a Vietnam War gunfire support mission, March 1967. Note the two outgoing projectiles in the upper right corner. Photographed by Chief Journalist R.D. Moeser.  Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) eight-inch guns of Turret # 2 firing, during a Vietnam War gunfire support mission, March 1967. Note the two outgoing projectiles in the upper right corner. Photographed by Chief Journalist R.D. Moeser.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) underway on 9 January 1961. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) underway on 9 January 1961. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower practicing his golf game, while on board USS Canberra (CAG 2) en route to Bermuda for a conference, 14 March 1957. The driving target and protective netting has been rigged on the main deck, just to starboard of the ship's Number Two eight-inch gun turret.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower practicing his golf game, while on board USS Canberra (CAG 2) en route to Bermuda for a conference, 14 March 1957. The driving target and protective netting has been rigged on the main deck, just to starboard of the ship’s Number Two eight-inch gun turret.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) crewmen sponge out a 8/55 gun of Turret # 2, following Vietnam War bombardment operations, March 1967. Photographed by Chief Journalist R.D. Moeser.  Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

USS Canberra (CAG 2) crewmen sponge out a 8/55 gun of Turret # 2, following Vietnam War bombardment operations, March 1967. Photographed by Chief Journalist R.D. Moeser.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

1939, USS Saratoga (CV 3) and USS Kanawha (AO 1) complete a two-day underway refueling test off the coast of southern Calif., demonstrating the feasibility of refueling carriers at sea where bases are not available.

Painting by Walter L. Greene, 1927, depicting the USS Saratoga launching aircraft. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph (# NH 42486-KN). Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC

Painting by Walter L. Greene, 1927, depicting the USS Saratoga launching aircraft.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph (# NH 42486-KN). Courtesy of the Navy Art Collection, Washington, DC

USS Saratoga (CV 3) in the Gaillard Cut (Culebra Cut), Panama Canal, bound for the Pacific, on the morning of 7 February 1928. Naval Aviation Museum

USS Saratoga (CV 3) in the Gaillard Cut (Culebra Cut), Panama Canal, bound for the Pacific, on the morning of 7 February 1928.
Naval Aviation Museum

USS Kanawha (AO 1), probably at Noumea, New Caledonia, as seen from USS Wasp (CV 7) on the eve of the Guadalcanal-Tulagi invasion. Photo is dated 4 August 1942. Other ships present include, at right, USS San Juan (CL 54), an old "flush-deck" destroyer in center, and in the distance a heavy cruiser (left) and a transport (right). U.S. National Archives photo

USS Kanawha (AO 1), probably at Noumea, New Caledonia, as seen from USS Wasp (CV 7) on the eve of the Guadalcanal-Tulagi invasion. Photo is dated 4 August 1942. Other ships present include, at right, USS San Juan (CL 54), an old “flush-deck” destroyer in center, and in the distance a heavy cruiser (left) and a transport (right).
U.S. National Archives photo

USS Kanawha (AO 1), off Mare Island, California, 23 June 1915.  US Navy Photo Collection.

USS Kanawha (AO 1), off Mare Island, California, 23 June 1915. US Navy Photo Collection.

1881, the bark-rigged wooden steamship Jeannette sinks after she is crushed in an Arctic ice pack during the expedition to reach the North Pole through the Bering Strait. She departed in July 1879, entered the Arctic ice in September and is frozen in. The ship is eventually crushed and only 13 of her crew survive out of 33.

USS Jeannette (1879-1881). Composite photograph of the ship, and the officers of her Arctic expedition. Those shown are (clockwise from top center): Lieutenant Commander George W. DeLong, USN, Commanding Officer; Passed Assistant Surgeon James M. Ambler, USN; Chief Engineer George W. Melville, USN; Raymond Lee Newcomb, Naturalist and Astronomer; William Dunbar, Pilot; Jerome J. Collins, Correspondent for the "New York Herald"; Lieutenant John W. Danenhower, USN, Second Officer; and Lieutenant Charles W. Chipp, USN, Executive Officer. Donation of Captain T.S. Wilkinson, USN, 1934. USN Photo Collection.

USS Jeannette (1879-1881). Composite photograph of the ship, and the officers of her Arctic expedition. Those shown are (clockwise from top center): Lieutenant Commander George W. DeLong, USN, Commanding Officer; Passed Assistant Surgeon James M. Ambler, USN; Chief Engineer George W. Melville, USN; Raymond Lee Newcomb, Naturalist and Astronomer; William Dunbar, Pilot; Jerome J. Collins, Correspondent for the “New York Herald”; Lieutenant John W. Danenhower, USN, Second Officer; and Lieutenant Charles W. Chipp, USN, Executive Officer. Donation of Captain T.S. Wilkinson, USN, 1934. USN Photo Collection.

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. "The Sinking of the Jeannette" Engraving by George T. Andrew after a design by M.J. Burns, copied from "The Voyage of the Jeannette ...", Volume II, page 575, edited by Emma DeLong, published in 1884. It depicts USS Jeannette after she was crushed by ice flows north of Siberia on 12 June 1881. She sank in the morning of 13 June in position 77 14'57" N, 154 58'45"E.  USN Photo Collection

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. “The Sinking of the Jeannette” Engraving by George T. Andrew after a design by M.J. Burns, copied from “The Voyage of the Jeannette …”, Volume II, page 575, edited by Emma DeLong, published in 1884. It depicts USS Jeannette after she was crushed by ice flows north of Siberia on 12 June 1881. She sank in the morning of 13 June in position 77 14’57” N, 154 58’45″E.
USN Photo Collection

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. Engraving of the expedition's survivors, based on a photograph taken at Yakutsk, Siberia, in 1882. Those present are (left to right, in front): Lauderback, Bartlett, William Coles, Seaman William F.C. Nindemann, and Mansen. (left to right, in middle): Chief Engineer George W. Melville and Lieutenant John W. Danenhower. (left to right, in back): Raymond Lee Newcomb (naturalist), Seaman Louis P. Noros, Henry Wilson, Tong Sing (cook), Anequin and H.W. Leach.  USN Photo Collection

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. Engraving of the expedition’s survivors, based on a photograph taken at Yakutsk, Siberia, in 1882. Those present are (left to right, in front): Lauderback, Bartlett, William Coles, Seaman William F.C. Nindemann, and Mansen. (left to right, in middle): Chief Engineer George W. Melville and Lieutenant John W. Danenhower. (left to right, in back): Raymond Lee Newcomb (naturalist), Seaman Louis P. Noros, Henry Wilson, Tong Sing (cook), Anequin and H.W. Leach.
USN Photo Collection

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. "Dragging the Boats over the Ice" Engraving by George T. Andrew after a design by M.J. Burns, copied from "The Voyage of the Jeannette ...", Volume II, page 629, edited by Emma DeLong, published in 1884. It depicts the crew of USS Jeannette hauling the ship's boats over the very rough Arctic ice north of Siberia in June-August 1881. Jeannette had been crushed in the ice and sunk on 12-13 June. USN Photo Collection

Jeannette Arctic exploring expedition, 1879-1881. “Dragging the Boats over the Ice” Engraving by George T. Andrew after a design by M.J. Burns, copied from “The Voyage of the Jeannette …”, Volume II, page 629, edited by Emma DeLong, published in 1884. It depicts the crew of USS Jeannette hauling the ship’s boats over the very rough Arctic ice north of Siberia in June-August 1881. Jeannette had been crushed in the ice and sunk on 12-13 June.
USN Photo Collection

1916, USS Pennsylvania (BB 38) is commissioned and is the lead ship of the Pennsylvania class of a U.S. Navy super-dreadnought battleship. During her service to our nation, she received eight battle stars and one Navy Unit Commendation.

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the interior of the Pennsylvania's (BB 38) wheelhouse, showing a binnacle, steering wheel and an engine order telegraph. Taken circa 1916-1918, it was published in about 1919 by A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, as one of ten images in a "Souvenir Folder" concerning Pennsylvania.  USN Photo

Halftone reproduction of a photograph of the interior of the Pennsylvania’s (BB 38) wheelhouse, showing a binnacle, steering wheel and an engine order telegraph. Taken circa 1916-1918, it was published in about 1919 by A.M. Simon, 324 E. 23rd St., New York City, as one of ten images in a “Souvenir Folder” concerning Pennsylvania.
USN Photo

USS Pennsylvania (BB 38) view of the battleship's forward 14/45 guns and her forward superstructure, circa the early 1930s. USN Photo

USS Pennsylvania (BB 38) view of the battleship’s forward 14/45 guns and her forward superstructure, circa the early 1930s.
USN Photo

Humorist Will Rogers with crewmen of USS Pennsylvania (BB 38), on the battleship's after deck, 28 March 1928. USN Photo

Humorist Will Rogers with crewmen of USS Pennsylvania (BB 38), on the battleship’s after deck, 28 March 1928.
USN Photo

Pennsylvania (BB 38) leading two other battleships during maneuvers, during the 1920s. The other ships are two of these three: Colorado (BB 45), Maryland (BB 46) and West Virginia(BB 48). USNHC # NH 63346, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

Pennsylvania (BB 38) leading two other battleships during maneuvers, during the 1920s. The other ships are two of these three: Colorado (BB 45), Maryland (BB 46) and West Virginia(BB 48). USNHC # NH 63346, from the collections of the Naval Historical Center.

June 1948 – The Women’s Armed Forces Integration Act provides for enlistment and appointment of women in the Navy Reserve.

WAVES take the oath. USN Photo.

WAVES take the oath.
USN Photo.

WAVES were first authorized to transfer to the ‪#‎USNavy‬. Pictured Front Row: YNC Wilma Juanita Marchal; YN2 Edna Earl Young; HM1 Ruth Flora. Back Row: AK1 K.L. Langdon, SK2 Frances Teresa Devaney, TE2 Doris Roberta Robertson. Also pictured Capt. Joy B. Hancock, director of the Women’s Reserve, Secretary of the Navy John Sullivan, and Rear Adm. L. Russell, Judge Advocate General. For more Navy Reserve history visit http://navyreservecentennial.com/

1944, one of our nation’s most famous battleships, USS Missouri (BB 63) is commissioned. USS Missouri was the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended WWII‬.

Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945  Adm. William F. Halsey and Vice Admiral John S. McCain on board USS Missouri (BB 63) shortly after the conclusion of the surrender ceremonies, 2 September 1945. Collection of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN.

Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945
Adm. William F. Halsey and Vice Admiral John S. McCain on board USS Missouri (BB 63) shortly after the conclusion of the surrender ceremonies, 2 September 1945. Collection of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN.

USS Missouri (BB 63) Sikorski HO3S-1 helicopter (Bureau # 122527) landing on the forward 16-inch gun turret, during the 1948 Midshipmen's cruise. Guard mail, ships' newspapers and personnel were exchanged via helicopter while the Midshipmen's cruise squadron was at sea. Most exchanges were made by hovering pick-up. The forward turret was used as a landing platform since the floatplane catapults on the ship's fantail prevented helicopters from operating there.  Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Missouri (BB 63) Sikorski HO3S-1 helicopter (Bureau # 122527) landing on the forward 16-inch gun turret, during the 1948 Midshipmen’s cruise. Guard mail, ships’ newspapers and personnel were exchanged via helicopter while the Midshipmen’s cruise squadron was at sea. Most exchanges were made by hovering pick-up. The forward turret was used as a landing platform since the floatplane catapults on the ship’s fantail prevented helicopters from operating there.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Missouri (BB-63) ship's crew and midshipmen celebrate the fourth anniversary of V-J Day, during the Midshipmen's cruise, 2 September 1949. They are gathered around the plaque that marks the spot where Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945. Turret Two is trained as it was during the surrender ceremonies.  Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Missouri (BB-63) ship’s crew and midshipmen celebrate the fourth anniversary of V-J Day, during the Midshipmen’s cruise, 2 September 1949. They are gathered around the plaque that marks the spot where Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945. Turret Two is trained as it was during the surrender ceremonies.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

USS Missouri (BB 63) in port, circa 1948, with a motor launch full of U.S. Naval Academy Midshipmen passing by in the foreground. U.S. Navy Photo Collection.

USS Missouri (BB 63) in port, circa 1948, with a motor launch full of U.S. Naval Academy Midshipmen passing by in the foreground. U.S. Navy Photo Collection.

For the US Army’s 240th Birthday, here’s one example of One Team operating together: “The Tokyo Raid By the US Army B-25 Bombers,” April 1942 by John Charles Roach, Oil Painting on Canvas, WWII. (Image courtesy of the U.S. Navy Art Gallery 2012-12-8)

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#MilitaryMonday: The Evolution of the US Navy Aircraft Carrier

The US Navy aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63)

The US Navy aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63)

Aircraft carriers are often revered as the “powerhouse of the fleet” because of their size, strength, capabilities and importance to our national security. For nearly 100 years, the aircraft carrier has continued to evolve alongside the technological advancements of America’s Navy.

The U.S. Navy’s first aircraft carrier, USS Langley (CV 1), was converted from the collier USS Jupiter (AC 3) and recommissioned March 20, 1922. Lagley had a displacement of 11,500 tons and measured 542 feet in length. She could travel at a speed of 15.5 knots (17.8 mph) and boasted a crew of 468 personnel. Though Langley was not the first ship with an installed flight deck or the first ship from which an airplane had taken off, her service marked the birth of the era of the carrier. She was also the sight of the first carrier catapult when her commanding officer, Cmdr. Kenneth Whiting, was catapulted from her deck.

Gerald R Ford Class (CVN 78/79) – US Navy CVN 21 Future Carrier Program, United States of America.

Gerald R Ford Class (CVN 78/79) – US Navy CVN 21 Future Carrier Program, United States of America.

In his book “U.S. Aircraft Carriers: An Illustrated Design History,” Norman Friedman noted that the Langley did not have a hangar deck in the modern sense because aircraft were not stowed ready for flight. They were actually assembled on the upper deck, loaded into the single elevator, and then hoisted onto the flight deck. She was also equipped with two lift cranes, two flight-deck catapults, and carried 36 aircraft. And according to Norman Polmar in his book “Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and its Influence on World Events”, the arresting gear on Langley consisted of “wires running fore and aft suspended about 10 inches above the deck” to which the hook of an aircraft would attach to slow the landing. He added that this system of fore-and-aft wires was used on U.S. carriers until 1929 when the Navy began developing a hydraulic arresting gear that could handle high-speed aircraft landings.

In 1927 the Lexington class aircraft carriers, USS Lexington (CV 2) and USS Saratoga (CV 3), were commissioned. Originally designed as battlecruisers, these carriers were much more efficient than Langley. At 888 feet in length and with a displacement of 37,000 tons, the Lexington class carriers traveled at a speed of 33.3 knots (38.3 mph) — more than double the speed of Langley. According to Siegfried Breyer’s “Battleships and Battlecruisers 1905-1970,” the Lexington class carriers featured a new bow called the bulbous bow which reduced water resistance by an average of six percent, supported the forecastle and reduced bending stress on the hull. A proper hangar, two elevators and one aircraft catapult housed and handled the 78 aircraft that Lexington class carriers were designed to carry. By 1942, these carriers accommodated 2,791 personnel.

How US Navy carriers have evolved over time in this infographic.

How US Navy carriers have evolved over time in this infographic.

USS Ranger (CV 4), commissioned in 1934, was the first ship of the U.S. Navy to be designed and built from the keel up as an aircraft carrier. She had a displacement of 14,500 tons, measured 769 feet in length, traveled at a speed of 29.3 knots (33.7 mph), and supported a complement of 2,461 personnel as built. At her maximum, she carried 86 aircraft and was equipped with three elevators and three catapults.

Immediately following Ranger was the Yorktown class, whose lead ship, USS Yorktown (CV 5), was commissioned in 1937. USS Enterprise (CV 6) and USS Hornet (CV 8) were also part of this class. The fast and versatile Yorktown class carriers had a displacement of 20,100 tons, measurement of 809 feet in length, traveling speed of 32.5 knots (37.4 miles per hour), and a complement of 2,919 personnel. They carried up to 90 aircraft and were equipped with three elevators and two flight deck catapults. Yorktown was actually the first carrier to use hydraulic catapults. The Yorktown class carriers suffered heavy losses during World War II, but its sole survivor — Enterprise — went on to become the most decorated U.S. ship of the war.

First commissioned in 1942 with the USS Essex (CV 9), Essex class carriers included an impressive fleet of 24 ships and served as the core of the U.S. Navy’s combat strength during World War II. Better design features made Essex class carriers more resilient and efficient. For example, simultaneous launch and recovery operations became possible when Essex class USS Antietam (CVA 36) made her debut as America’s first angled-deck aircraft carrier. Additional features of Essex class carriers included bigger hangar space; better machinery arrangement and armor protection; a portside deck edge elevator [originating from her predecessor, USS Wasp (CV 7)]; advanced radio and radar equipment; and the incorporation of the “long-hull” or “Ticonderoga class” Essexes. The long-hull Essexes were constructed with a lengthened bow above the waterline which provided deck space for two quadruple 40mm mounts. The flight decks were also shortened forward to provide better arcs of fire. Continuous improvements to the Essex class carriers enabled them to serve through World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and assist in the space program until 1973.

The USS Ronald Reagan aircraft carrier. (Photo: USN)

The USS Ronald Reagan aircraft carrier. (Photo: USN)

In 1943, the smaller and faster Independence class carriers followed the Essex class, but design plans had been underway for a carrier with an armored flight deck that could accommodate more planes than any other carrier yet. So when USS Midway (CV 41) was commissioned in 1945, it was no surprise that it became one of the longest-lasting carrier designs in history. Midway class ships retained their strength at the hangar deck level and the armored flight deck was part of the superstructure. The original design of the Midway class supported up to 130 aircraft, but coordinating that many planes would be ineffective and problematic. All three Midway class ships underwent modernizations in the 1950s and were fitted with angled decks, steam catapults and mirrored landing systems that allowed them to accommodate the new, heavier naval jets.

The 1950s marked the development of the U.S. Navy’s “supercarriers” beginning with USS Forrestal (CVA 59), commissioned in 1955. Ships in this class measured 1,036 feet in length with a displacement of 56,000 tons and a fully integrated angled deck. They could carry up to 90 aircraft and had the most spacious hangar and flight decks. The Forrestal class was succeeded by Kitty Hawk class supercarriers with only minor changes, followed by the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN 65), commissioned in 1961. At 1,101 feet in length, she is still the longest naval vessel in the world.

Following Enterprise was USS Kennedy (CV 67) which was originally designed to be the fourth Kitty Hawk class supercarrier, but because so many modifications were made during construction, she formed her own class.

The USS George H.W. Bush, shown here in the Straits of Hormuz in April 2014.

The USS George H.W. Bush, shown here in the Straits of Hormuz in April 2014.

Finally, the Nimitz class supercarriers are a group of 10 nuclear-powered aircraft carriers currently in service. These carriers use the catapult assisted take-off but arrested recovery (CATOBAR) system for faster launching and recovery. Additionally, the flight deck is angled at nine degrees to allow for simultaneous launch and recovery. Nimitz class carriers utilize only two nuclear reactors compared to the eight on Enterprise. According to Norman Polmar’s “The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet”, this improvement allows Nimitz class carriers to carry 90 percent more fuel and 50 percent more ordnance compared to the original Forrestal class.

The aircraft carrier continues to evolve as the needs of the U.S. Navy change, and the next evolution of the carrier will be revealed when the Ford class carrier makes its scheduled debut in 2016. With a displacement of more than 90,000 tons, length of 1,092 feet, speeds capable of more than 30 knots (35 miles per hour), and the ability to support 4,297 personnel, she doesn’t seem much different than her predecessors. However, enhancements in the designs will allow her to operate even more efficiently. According to the U.S. Navy Fact File on Gerald R. Ford class carriers, “each ship in the new class will save more than $4 billion in total ownership costs during its 50-year service life, compared to the Nimitz-class.” Furthermore, the ship will be able to operate with fewer crew members, require less maintenance, and allow for 25 percent more sorties per day.

On the Web: 

List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy

Aircraft Carrier – The US Navy Aircraft Carriers

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