Thursday Coolness: Lunar Transit of the Sun with a Giant Solar Flare

Image courtesy of NASA/SDO

Image courtesy of NASA/SDO

The moon passed between the orbiting Solar Dynamics Observatory’s cameras and the sun Thursday morning, and the result was this very cool NASA video of what is called a lunar transit. The video is short, but the transit took 2.5 hours, the longest ever recorded. The different colors reflect different filters to show different wavelengths of light. Notice how crisp, to use NASA’s word, the lunar horizon appears. That’s because the moon has no atmosphere to blur the clarity. Don’t miss the mid-level solar flare the sun emitted after the moon passes the center of the image.

On the Web: Learn more about the event

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#ThrowbackThursday: 30 Jan 1944 – USS North Carolina (BB 55) sinks Japanese transport

On January 30, 1944, USS North Carolina (BB 55) sank Japanese transport Eiko Maru off the west coast of Roi.

Also on this date, USS Burns (DD 588) sank Japanese transport Akibasan Maru and guardboat Nichiei Maru off Ujae while SBDs and F6Fs from USS Enterprise (CV 6), USS Yorktown (CV 10), USS Bunker Hill (CV 17) and USS Belleau Wood (CVL 24) attacked Japanese shipping in Marshall Islands and sank auxiliary submarine chasers Cha 18 and Cha 21 and guardboat No.6 Shonan Maru at Kwajalein.

At Mille, Japanese vessels sunk were: Cha 14, Cha 19, Cha 28. Additionally, Japanese cargo vessel Katasura Maru was damaged at Eniwetok and USS Phelps (DD 360) helps sink the vessel.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55)
Anchored off the Puget Sound Navy Yard,
Washington, 24 September 1944.
She is painted in what may be a variant of Camouflage Measure 32, Design 18D. U.S. Navy Photograph, NHHC Photo.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55). Fires her after 16″/45 guns in June 1941, during her shakedown cruise. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-13511 (Color).

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USS Bunker Hill (CV-17). At sea while participating in strikes on the Palau Islands, 27 March 1944. She is painted in camouflage Measure 33, Design 6A. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-1560.

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USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24). Underway on 22 December 1943. NHHC Photograph Collection: NH 97269.

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USS Yorktown (CV-10). Underway circa mid-1943, possibly during her shakedown cruise in the late spring. Planes on deck include F6F “Hellcat” fighters and SB2C “Helldiver” scout-bombers. Note this carrier’s unique longitudinal black flight deck stripe. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-14379 (Color)

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USS Enterprise (CV-6). En route to New York to take part in the Navy Day Fleet Review, October 1945. She is steaming in company with a light carrier (CVL) — in the right distance– and another warship. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-K-6576 (Color).

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USS Phelps (DD-360). Off the Charleston Navy Yard, South Carolina, about November 1944.
She is painted in camouflage Measure 32, Design 3d. Photograph from the Bureau of Ships Collection in the U.S. National Archives, 19-N-73964.

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USS Burns (DD 580) , taken from Naval Air Station, Weeksville, 17 July 1943. National Archives photograph: 80-G-76604. Note, on 30 January 1945, Burns sank Japanese guardboat No.2 Hokoku Maru off Ojae.

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Guadalcanal Invasion, August 1942. Ordnancemen of Scouting Squadron Six (VS-6) load a 500 pound demolition bomb on an SBD scout bomber on the flight deck of USS Enterprise (CV-6), during the first day of strikes on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, 7 August 1942. Note aircraft’s landing gear and bomb crutch; also bomb cart and hoist. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-10458.

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USS Enterprise (CV-6). F6F “Hellcat” fighters taxiing forward on the flight deck, during training exercises, 2 July 1943. Another F6F is in flight overhead, with its landing gear and tail hook extended. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives, 80-G-74510.

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USS North Carolina (BB-55)
Photographed during her shakedown cruise, May 1941.
The battleship is framed by an escorting destroyer’s deck, 5″/38 gun barrel and a crewman.
Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

On the Web:

USS North Carolina

USS Enterprise

USS Bunker Hill

USS Belleau Wood

USS Yorktown

USS Phelps

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#MilitaryMonday: USS Higbee (DD 806) Commissioned – First USN Vessel Named for a Female

On January 27, 1945, the U.S. Navy Destroyer USS Higbee (DD 806), was commissioned. She was the first U.S. Navy combat ship to bear the name of a female member of the Naval service, a USN nurse to boot!.

Also a veteran of both the Korean and Vietnam Wars, she was decommissioned in 1979 and later sunk as a target in 1986. Note, Higbee was redesignated as (DDR-806) in 1949 but was later resdesignated to her former hull number (DD 806) in 1963.

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USS Higbee (DD-806) at sea off the coast of Hawaii, 1974. Higbee was the first U.S. Navy ship named after a woman member of the U.S. Navy. NHHC Photograph Collection, L-file.

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Namesake of USS Higbee (DD-806), Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee, (NC) USN. This portrait photograph was taken in uniform during the World War I era. She was the second Superintendent of the Navy Nurse Corps, from 20 January 1911 to 30 November 1922. National Archives photograph, #80-G-1037198.

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Lieutenant Ramona E. Lambert, NC, USNR, poses with the Flag of USS Higbee (DD 806), named for Lenah S. Higbee, the second commandant of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps, taken circa 1945. NHHC Photograph Collection, NH 95034.

On the Web:

Read more about USN Chief Nurse Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee

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Noah’s Ark was round, say researchers

Bryan Patterson's Faithworks

IT was a vast boat that supposedly saved two of each animal and a handful of humans from a catastrophic flood.

But forget all those images of a long vessel with a pointy bow — the original Noah’s Ark, new research suggests, was round.

A recently deciphered 4,000-year-old clay tablet from ancient Mesopotamia — modern-day Iraq — reveals striking new details about the roots of the Old Testament tale of Noah. It tells a similar story, complete with detailed instructions for building a giant round vessel known as a coracle — as well as the key instruction that animals should enter “two by two.”

The tablet went on display at the British Museum this week, and soon engineers will follow the ancient instructions to see whether the vessel could actually have sailed.

It’s also the subject of a new book, “The Ark Before Noah,” by Irving Finkel, the museum’s assistant…

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A Tale of Serendipity

A R T L▼R K

51WKGZx9MrL._On the 28th of January 1754, in a letter to Horace Mann, eighteenth-century English author Horace Walpole coined the word serendipity in the English language: “I once read a silly fairy tale, called The Three Princes of Serendip [the ancient name for Ceylon, or Sri Lanka]: as their Highnesses travelled, they were always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of: for instance, one of them discovered that a mule blind of the right eye had travelled the same road lately, because the grass was eaten only on the left side, where it was worse than on the right? Now do you understand Serendipity?” In its current usage, serendipity means a fortuitous discovery, a positive chance happening.

In 1958, American sociologists Robert K. Merton and Elinor Barber wrote a very interesting book – shelved for forty years, and only printed in…

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Holocaust Memorial Day: Remember, Honor, Educate, Prevent

It was 69 tears ago today on what we now know as Auschwitz Liberation Day, Holocaust Memorial Day and Holocaust Remembrance Day, when Soviet Troops liberated Auschwitz-Birkenau in occupied Poland.

Here, borrowed from Yad Vashem, is one family’s perspective from Chanukah 1932.

Rabbi Dr. Akiva Posner, his wife Rachel and their three children: from right to left: Avraham Chaim, Tova and Shulamit, at the train station in Kiel upon leaving Germany, 1933

Rabbi Dr. Akiva Posner, his wife Rachel and their three children: from right to left: Avraham Chaim, Tova and Shulamit, at the train station in Kiel upon leaving Germany, 1933

Artifacts in the Holocaust History Museum

Chanukah Menorah from the Home of Rabbi Akiva & Rachel Posner in Kiel, Germany

A photograph taken in 1932 by Rachel, wife of Rabbi Akiva Posner, of their candle-lit Chanukah menorah against the backdrop of the Nazi flags flying from the building across from their home in Kiel Germany

A photograph taken in 1932 by Rachel, wife of Rabbi Akiva Posner, of their candle-lit Chanukah menorah against the backdrop of the Nazi flags flying from the building across from their home in Kiel Germany

On Chanukah 1932, just prior to the elections that would bring Hitler to power, Rachel Posner, wife of Rabbi Dr. Akiva Posner, took this photo of the family Chanukah menorah from the window ledge of the family home looking out on to the building across the road decorated with Nazi flags.

On the back of the photograph, Rachel Posner wrote in German (translated here):

Chanukah 5692
(1932)
“Death to Judah”
So the flag says
“Judah will live forever”
So the light answers

The back of the photograph of the Posner family’s Chanukah menorah taken in Kiel Germany. On it Rachel Posner has written what translates as:  "Death to Judah" So the flag says "Judah will live forever" So the light answers.

The back of the photograph of the Posner family’s Chanukah menorah taken in Kiel Germany. On it Rachel Posner has written what translates as:
“Death to Judah”
So the flag says
“Judah will live forever”
So the light answers.

Rabbi Dr. Akiva Posner, Doctor of Philosophy from Halle-Wittenberg University, served from 1924–1933 as the last Rabbi of the community of Kiel, Germany.

After Rabbi Posner publicized a protest letter in the local press expressing indignation at the posters that had appeared in the city:  “Entrance to Jews Forbidden”, he was summoned by the chairman of the local branch of the Nazi party to participate in a public debate. The event took place under heavy police guard and was reported by the local press.

The Posner family’s Chanukah menorah. Rachel Posner photographed the menorah as it stood on the family’s window ledge in Kiel, Germany against the backdrop of the Nazi flags flying from the building across from their home

The Posner family’s Chanukah menorah. Rachel Posner photographed the menorah as it stood on the family’s window ledge in Kiel, Germany against the backdrop of the Nazi flags flying from the building across from their home

When the tension and violence in the city intensified, the Rabbi responded to the pleas of his community to flee with his wife Rachel and their three children and make their way to Eretz Israel. Before their departure, Rabbi Posner was able to convince many of his congregants to leave as well and indeed most managed to leave for Eretz Israel or the United States. The Posner family left Germany in 1933 and arrived in Eretz Israel in 1934.

The Posner family Chanukah menorah displayed in the Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem beside the photograph that was taken in the Posner family home in Kiel on their last Chanukah in Germany, 1932

The Posner family Chanukah menorah displayed in the Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem beside the photograph that was taken in the Posner family home in Kiel on their last Chanukah in Germany, 1932

Some eighty years later, Akiva and Rachel Posner’s descendants continue to light Chanukah candles using the same menorah that was brought to Israel from Kiel. On Chanukah 5770 (2009), their great-grandson, Akiva Mansbach, dressed in the uniform of the Israel Defence Forces saluted and read out a poem written in Hebrew in a similar vein to that written by Rachel Posner in 1932.

Translated it reads:
“ In 5692 the Menorah is in exile, it stands in the window
It challenges the party flag that doesn’t yet rule
“Judah die!” it says
And Grandma ‘s rhyme responds
In its own tongue, without despair:
So the flag says, but our candle answers and declares
“Judah will live forever”

In 5770 the menorah stands in the window once again
Facing the flag of the ruling State
The descendant Akiva, named for his great-grandfather
Salutes through the window and lights the menorah
Grandmother, give thanks above and say a prayer
That “the Redeemer will come to Zion” and not delay.

(Loaned by the Posner Family Estate, courtesy of Shulamit Mansbach, Haifa, Israel
Photographer: Rachel Posner)

On the Web: Auschwitz Concentration Camp Emancipation 69 Years Ago

Auschwitz concentration camp – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Auschwitz-Birkenau

Auschwitz – United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Yad Vashem

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Venus Shines at its Brightest Before Sunrise

The “morning star” dazzles as it climbs high and shines brightly during morning twilight in February and March.

The “morning star” dazzles as it climbs high and shines brightly during morning twilight in February and March.

If you head outside any clear February morning, your eyes will be drawn to a blazing light hanging in the southeastern sky. At first you might think it’s a plane coming in for a landing. But this is no object flying low in our atmosphere — it’s the brightest planet in the solar system. Venus appears especially prominent in February because it shines brightest and appears highest in the morning sky.

The brightest planet peaks at magnitude –4.9 in mid-February, when observers under dark skies might see it cast a shadow.

The brightest planet peaks at magnitude –4.9 in mid-February, when observers under dark skies might see it cast a shadow.

Venus shines at magnitude –4.9 — the brightest it ever gets — from February 8 to 16. (It officially reaches the point of “greatest brilliancy” on the morning of the 15th, but the difference is imperceptible.) This makes it nearly 10 times brighter than the sky’s second-brightest point of light, the planet Jupiter, which dominates the sky from dusk until about the time Venus rises. Venus fades slowly thereafter, dipping only to magnitude –4.8 by the end of February and a few tenths more during March.

Venus also appears highest in the morning sky from mid-northern latitudes during the second half of February. It rises about 2½ hours before the Sun throughout this period and climbs approximately 15° above the southeastern horizon an hour before sunrise. Venus now appears higher and brighter in the morning sky than at any time since 2012. You don’t want to miss this opportunity because it won’t be as high again until it returns to the evening sky in early 2015.

Mercury and Venus achieve greatest elongation within eight days of each other this month, providing nice views for early risers.

Mercury and Venus achieve greatest elongation within eight days of each other this month, providing nice views for early risers.

The inner planet moves farther from the Sun in March, but it actually drops lower in the sky. You can blame solar system geometry for this apparent contradiction. The ecliptic — the Sun’s apparent path across the sky that the planets follow closely — makes a steeper angle to the eastern horizon before dawn in February than it does in March. So, even though Venus’ elongation from our star grows during March’s first three weeks, that increase translates more into distance along the horizon and less into altitude. At greatest elongation March 22, Venus lies 47° west of the Sun but rises only two hours before our star and appears 10° high an hour before sunrise. It is still a beautiful sight, just not quite as good as in the latter half of February.

Although Venus looks impressive by itself, a nearby crescent Moon can turn the morning vista stunning. The best conjunctions in February occur on the 24th (when the Moon lies to the planet’s upper right) and the 25th (with our satellite to Venus’ lower left). In March, the best view comes on the 27th, when the waning crescent Moon appears to Venus’ upper left.

The morning twilight sky in mid-March holds another planet worth viewing: innermost Mercury. This Sun-hugger reaches greatest elongation from the Sun on the 14th, just eight days before Venus does, when it lies 28° west of our star. It then appears 5° high in the east-northeast 30 minutes before sunrise. Mercury then shines at magnitude 0.1, some 60 times fainter than Venus but still bright enough to see through binoculars against the twilight glow.

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Spring Salad, Mushrooms, and Grape Tomato Pizza with a Spicy White Garlic Sauce

Cooking with a Wallflower

Warm cheesy and slightly garlicky pizza on a French bread crust topped with fresh salad, mushrooms, and grape tomatoes. A quick and easy recipe that is both delicious and relatively healthy for lunch or dinner.

Spring Salad, Mushrooms, and Grape Tomato Pizza with a Spicy White Garlic Sauce | Cooking with a Wallflower

I’ve been craving pizza. Not the typical pepperoni or combo pizza. I wanted one with fresh ingredients; maybe arugula, or farm egg, or butternut squash. But to go to a pizza parlor that specializes in these fresh ingredients means that the pizzas will be relatively expensive. So what better way to satisfy my craving than to make my own? I have most of these ingredients in my kitchen. All I really need is the crust.

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Sacred Sunday: 15th Century Gothic Stained Glass

Sacred Sunday Title

With the advent of Gothic architecture, stained glass flourished as the expansion of immense window spaces in Gothic cathedrals demanded a new approach to the medium. Red and blue remain the predominant color choice and the tendency to fuse white glass in the composition allowing for more light gives way to completely filling up of space with ornate designs consisting of darker glass. A wide variety of geometrical shapes emerge as narrative becomes more important and complex juxtaposition of events are recorded in compartmental sequences. Decorative borders and foliage become more formalized and intricate while experimentation with more naturalistic and volumetric forms appears in figurative work. The flashed glass technique is introduced, offering glaziers a means to achieve a variety of color gradations in a single piece of colored glass. The emergence of the Rose Window at St. Denis Cathedral and Chartres Cathedral, both in France, greatly influences the field throughout Europe as providing a means to depict more complex ideas as embellishments in Biblical narrative become prevalent.

Toward the end of the thirteenth century a desire for more illumination surfaced with an increase in non-figurative windows and concentric patterning that incorporated more transparent glass. One of the finest examples of this shift in taste is York Minster’s Five Sisters Windows, a remarkable display of grisaille glazing. Grisaille glazing was first favored by the Cistercian Order under St. Bernard, who found that figurative windows distracted monks from religious responsibilities. This labor intensive technique consisting of complex formalized leaf-like forms relying on an intricate pattern of lead and a great deal of painted detail and crosshatching became widespread throughout England and France. As the palette became increasingly lighter, horizontal layers of colored glass and grisaille, or band windows, were incorporated in the figurative windows. As widespread adoption of elaborate stone window tracery occurred, figurative groupings fall out of favor and the individual figure resurfaces, but now framed by architectural canopies. Stained glass witnessed its greatest diversity in design, style, palette and sentiment during the Gothic period. This diversity in approach combined with the skilled artistry that developed with the formation of regulated guilds and a wide array of technological advances elevated the medium to a position of preeminence that would remain unsurpassed.

Charles VI c. 1400 Stained glass window Cathedral, Évreux

Charles VI
c. 1400
Stained glass window
Cathedral, Évreux

The Royal Window in the choir of Évreux Cathedral is outstanding representative of the International (or Soft) Gothic style, developed by 1400. The donation by Charles VI was probably commissioned from a workshop in Paris. The king occupies the centre of the four-panel window. Shown kneeling in a small vaulted space, he turns, with St Denis near by, toward the Virgin. The artistic virtuosity and lavishness of these panels exceed everything that is known elsewhere in France from this period.

Jacques Coeur Window 1451 Stained glass window Cathedral, Bourges

Jacques Coeur Window
1451
Stained glass window
Cathedral, Bourges

Toward the middle of the 15th century, the influence of Flemish panel painting became increasingly noticeable in stained glass. In 1451, the rich and ennobled French merchant Jacques Coeur provided a liberal endowment for expensive stained glass to go in his chapel in Bourges Cathedral. The glass bears the stamp of Jan van Eyck’s style.

The central scene is divided into two panels. One contains the Archangel Gabriel, who is announcing the good news, the other contains the Virgin. Two further panels show the patron saints of the donor and his wife (not shown on the picture). The glass was produced by a workshop in the artistic tradition of the Paris school of stained glass, working to drawings by a Flemish painter.

The Annunciation c. 1450 Stained glass window Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Bourges

The Annunciation
c. 1450
Stained glass window
Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Bourges

Charlemagne and King Arthur c. 1410 Stained glass window Town Hall, Lüneburg

Charlemagne and King Arthur
c. 1410
Stained glass window
Town Hall, Lüneburg

Lüneburg Town Hall conserves one of the very few examples of monumental stained glass with secular subject matter. The “Nine Worthies,” who include Charlemagne and King Arthur, were considered in the late Middle Ages as models of good government and were therefore often depicted in town halls.

Annunciation c. 1430 Stained glass window Cathedral, Ulm

Annunciation
c. 1430
Stained glass window
Cathedral, Ulm

After the mid 14th century, stained glass was increasingly found in urban parish churches. Enticed by commissions from leading citizens, glass painters came to towns where there had hitherto been no tradition of stained glass, for example to Ulm, where the choir of the minster was reglazed between 1390 and 1420. Around 1430-31, stained glass was provided for the chapel of the Besserer family on the south side of the choir.

The picture shows the Annunciation from the Besserer Chapel. Someone who was familiar with the output of the Master of Flémalle (Robert Campin) from Tournai must have worked on the Besserer commission.

Window with Saints 1440-47 Pot-metal and white glass with vitrous paint, 377 x 73 cm (each panel) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Window with Saints
1440-47
Pot-metal and white glass with vitrous paint, 377 x 73 cm (each panel)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

These three windows of stained glass are from the Carmelite church of Saint Severinus at Boppard-on-Rhine in Germany. They are part of an ensemble of six that were originally installed three over three to form a single tall window. After Napoleon invaded the Rhineland and secularised its monasteries, the stained glass of the church was removed and dispersed.

The three panels represent St Catherine of Alexandria with the wheel and sword of her martyrdom, St Dorothea receiving a basket of roses from the Christ Child (in the centre), and St Barbara holding the tower in which she was imprisoned.

Adoration of the Magi (detail) c. 1453 Stained glass window Cathedral, Berne

Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1453
Stained glass window
Cathedral, Berne

The first stained glass window in the Gothic choir of the Berne Cathedral was provided by the Ulm workshop in 1441. However, subsequent work, such as the Adoration of the Magi on the north side of the choir, was made by local artists. The design was by a painter who worked in the tradition of the Master of the Upper Rhine, Germany active in 1410s. Another of his works included “The Garden of Eden” in Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt.

Adoration of the Magi (detail) c. 1453 Stained glass window Cathedral, Berne

Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1453
Stained glass window
Cathedral, Berne

Transept Window 15th century Stained glass window Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice

Transept Window
15th century
Stained glass window
Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice

This Gothic style window with fined coloured glass is on the end wall of the right transept of the church. The cartoons for St Paul and the upper part are attributed to Bartolomeo Vivarini, those for the Virgin, St John the Baptist and St Peter to Cima da Conegliano, and those for the lower part to Gerolamo Mocetto.

The Creation 1490s Stained glass window Duomo, Milan

The Creation
1490s
Stained glass window
Duomo, Milan

This stained glass panel in the Cathedral Museum in Milan was executed for the apse of the Cathedral. The Cathedral Committee, on account of a competition announcement, selected three glaziers, Franceschino Zavattari, Maffiolo da Cremona, and Stefano da Pandino, and commissioned to execute the three apse windows; but without assigning a precise stained glass to each glazier.

Artists arose from obscurity and began to be patronized by a new wealthy mercantile class. Individual artists were sought out across regional boundaries for specific skills and traits. Glass work was no longer anonymous and begins to be attributed to specific artists and workshops. Additionally, the depiction of artists and glass guilds within windows reflects stained glass’ increasingly elevated status. Taste for jewel-like color, open space no longer constrained by architectural divisions and an increase in secular usage reflects new riches. Architecture is emphasized less as it takes on a new organic quality, foliage becomes more loose and warmer colors are used while greater attention is given to textile rendering. Images depicting secular activities such as masonry and glazing were juxtaposed next to sacred imagery.

During the sixteenth century a rise in the production of glass panels for private contemplation and personal devotion ensued, thus the narrative stained glass window now served as moralizing images. Beginning in the sixteenth century with the Reformation, the creation of religious imagery had severe penalties and glass makers had to seek secular commissions like moralizing roundels or heraldic panels in order to make a living.

Decline and Destruction

Political upheavals and religious unrest jeopardized the survival of stained glass beginning in the sixteenth century, making decline and destruction eminent. Calvinist iconoclasm ended production in the North, while Reformation attacks on Catholic churches destroyed a tremendous amount of glass, particularly in England. In 1547 the Dissolution of the Monasteries ordered the destruction of all decorative glass in churches. In 1633, many of the glass factories in Lorraine, France were devastated by war. From 1642 through 1653 the Commonwealth of England destroyed thousands of stained glass windows.

Concurrent with the widespread destruction, Renaissance styles began to take precedence over Gothic style. Murals and frescoes were in higher demand and Italy was quickly becoming the cultural center of Europe. With the emergence of enamels in the sixteenth century, glaziers began to imitate Renaissance painters and applied thick coats of enamel to the surface, as if painting a canvas. Also, transparent glass gave way to heavily painted opaque glass. The more this was practiced, the more distant old stained glass techniques became. The artistry and skill, that had reached their zenith during the Gothic period, became a lost art. During the nineteenth century Sir Joshua Reynolds and other luminaries completely disregarded the medium and continued using enamel in this vein. For approximately two hundred years stained glass fell out of favor due to massive destruction, religious iconoclasm, preference for Renaissance styles, the rise in enamels usage, and a lack of knowledge of old techniques. Stained glass was not widely produced and did not again receive critical attention until its revival in the nineteenth century.

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